Developmental Psychology Week 6 Notes
Developmental Psychology Week 6 Notes PSY 266
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 266 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Caitlin C. Brez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Development Psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Developmental Psychology Week 6 Notes Early childhood Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Jean Piaget: constructivist (knowledge is built up from experience) o Published a paper at age 11 Borrowed from biology Principles of: o Organization (in nature things are organized) o Adaptation ( as things change, you adapt) Schemas: organized ways of putting things together How children learn: o Assimilation process in which new information is pulled into your existing schema Ex: you have an understanding of what a dog is comes across a hairless dog so you update schema to say dogs don’t need hair. Pb fish instead of jellyfish. o Accommodation: change your schema Ex: dog (4 legs, fur and tail) but deer, cat, and cow have those so they have to change their schema say dogs bark, cows have spots, cats meow. Walley with spork o Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: (see table on blackboard) o Sensorimotor stage: all about moving Key milestones: Object permanence an object is permanent, it doesn’t disappear if you cover it up it is still there around 8 months they have this AnotB error: take an object, hide in spot A over and over and they reach in A, put it in B and they still search in A around 12 months they reach for B. o Preoperational period: Between 2 and 7 years Chatacteristics/limitaions: Egocentrism: idea that kids see their world from their perspective but they think everyone has same perspective. Don’t understand that others have a different view. 3 mountain task, kid with juice box full of ribbons( smarties task) False belief task: muffin video and sticker video Centration: concentrate on one dimension(length) and ignore transformation (spacing out more). dots task o Concrete operational: Between 7 and 12 years Characteristics Infers reality beyond own perspective Considers several dimensions Focuses on states and transformations o Formal operational: 11 years and up Adult like logic Deductive reasoning (20 quesitons) o Marshmallow test: selfcontrol, emotional intelligence o Those who waited: better attention and emotional skills, better verbal fluency, planning, lower BMI, deal with frustration, higher SAT, higher selfesteem, higher selfregulation, males less likely to use crack cocaine o Gender o Sex vs Gender Sex biological (XX or XY), genitalia Gender social construct: how you identify with yourself o Socialization and gender Baby Storm parents didn’t tell anyone or shild what gender the baby was so storm could choose for him or herself o Gender identity Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 stage sequence Basic gender identity: 3 years Gender stability: 4 yrs gender/sex stays stable Gender consistency: 7 years your genitalia and sex stay same despite changing outward appearances Sandra Bem Genitalia knowledge: 35 yo. took pics of genitalia and showed other kids o Gender differences o Play preferences: 2 or 3 years o Gender role stereotypes: Gender role inventory: “whose more likely to be caring or strong?” males are stricter with this o Sandra Bem (again) Androgyny a lot of male typical traits and behaviors and a lot of female College students: 33% follow stereotype 30% androgynous 37% lacked stereotyped traits or sexreversed Children: 2530% androgynous o Parenting o Nature of the relationship o Parents vs peers: who has more influence in development? Peers around peers all day every day in school Parents there from beginning and parents have influence on who peers are o Parenting styles: Diana Baumrind 4 groups Authoritative caring but high expectations Permissive spoil children Neglectful rare, not involved Authoritarian strict, high demands Chart on blackboard of styles and characteristics o Child behavior: Neglectful parents: kids don’t end up good, delinquency Permissive: very dependent on others, impulsive, poor peer relationships Authoritarian: lack goals, initiation, poor communication skills Authoritative: selfreliant, good selfcontrol, good relationships with peers, independent best outcome o Discipline Moral behavior Disciplinary techniques Love withdrawal will not give attention or affection to child Power assertion asserting power, showing your in charge Induction reasoning approach ( what you did wrong and why it was wrong) –leads to more moral behavior o Corporal punishment Hitting, spanking, whipping, paddling, slapping, biting o Negative outcomes (correlated, no causation) Aggression Delinquency Criminality Antisocial behavior Mental health problems Poor parentchild relationships Increased risk for physical abuse o Ways to not discipline Create a supportive environment Positive forms of discipline Time out Removing privileges Focus on praise and reward Ignore bad behavior (nonsafety situations)