ANTHRO33: Lecture 3 (9/29/16)
ANTHRO33: Lecture 3 (9/29/16) ANTHRO 33
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viola You on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 33 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by E. A. Cartmill in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Culture and Communication in Anthropology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Speech (or sign) is not writing why not writing? ● Writing is young (~6,000 years), speech is old ● Many languages do not have written forms ● Many people do not read/write but all use language ● Writing must be taught, speech is learned naturally ○ It’s not as natural as speech ● Reading/writing reuses speech area of brain ● Writing can be edited, is slower process Competence vs Performance ● Competence ○ You have an understanding of the skill or thing ● Performance ○ This will vary a lot depending on different variables (injury, strength, etc.) ○ Taking model of competence and applying it to the real world ○ Linguistic anthropologists study the variation of performance Modes of communication: Informationtheoretic (Shannon, 1948) 1. Information source (speaker) 2. Transmitter 3. Signal 4. Noise Source 5. Received Signal 6. Receiver (person who is listening) 7. Destination Conduit (Reddy, 1979) 1. Message in 2. Conduit 3. Message out Code Model good for mechanical systems like TV, phones, computer networks (not great for language doesn’t fully explain language 1. Sender’s Message 2. Encoder 3. Signaling Channel 4. (Noise) 5. Decoder 6. Received message How do you understand language? ● Sounds are speech ○ identify them ● Speech sounds are part of your language ○ are these sounds I would normally understand? ● Stream of sound can be parsed into words ○ There aren’t really clear gaps in between words ○ Once we know the language, we predict what might come next ○ There’s never a true pause silence ○ How can we identify where breaks are between words? ■ Example: Statistics are fun! ■ “St” is high frequency (likely within a word) ■ “R f” in “are fun” is low frequency (likely between words) ● Structures in and between words and meaningful ● Interpret meaning based on context and prior knowledge ○ What are the intentions? Basic components of speech sound, not the language ● Airstream ○ Natural exhalation provides a ready opportunity for speech ■ No substantial added effort ○ But, speech does interfere with breathing ■ Hard to talk when working out or running ○ Basic speech can be produced while inhaling creates perceived speech ■ But rare and missing the complex resonators of oral cavity ● Source ○ Disrupt airflow ■ Vocal folds (vibrating tissue in larynx) ● humans, all terrestrial mammals, some others like alligators and frogs) ● Any vibration will do, but ability to change speed of vibration has an impact ■ Rate of vocal fold vibration = fundamental frequency (F0) ■ Fundamental frequency influences pitch ● Low pitch = slower vibration ● High pitch = faster ■ Fundamental frequency (F0) determined by length and tension of vocal folds ○ Voice structure ■ Fundamental frequency ■ Vocal tract filter ● Air passes through cavities that alter the speed of vibration ● Supralaryngeal vocal tract ○ Pharyngeal (throat) ○ Oral (mouth) ○ Nasal (nose) ● Each individual vibration frequency is called a formant frequency ○ Filters ■ Formant frequencies (harmonics) ■ Source (vocal fold vibration) and filter (vocal tract resonance) can be manipulated separately ● Distinction between the two is important! ● Can make any vowel at any pitch ■ All animal vocal systems have separate source and filter ● Changing the filter does not alter source and vice versa ■ Output ● Sound you hear is combination of source and filter ● Pitch change (change tension on vocal folds) ● Formant change (aeiou: change shape of vocal tract) ● Can also make noise in other ways without using vocal cords whistling, clicking with tongue and roof of mouth, lips
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