Prosocial Continued and Prejudice
Prosocial Continued and Prejudice PSYC2012
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Tuesday March 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views.
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Date Created: 03/31/15
Tuesday March 31 2015 Class Notes Social Psychology Test 2 Format 4243 mc questions 15 points each 5 short answers Read these carefully Several people messed this up last test Always ask your questions if you have one Even if you don t think she can answer still ask it Allocate time wisely pay attention to number of points each one is worth Attitudes amp Persuasion Social Influence Aggression Prosocial Info from class Tuesday 331 on Prosocial will be on this test but not the Prejudice notes Some review Cognitive response theory the internal dialogue is what is important to pay attention to Positive thoughts agreeing with persuasion Negative thoughts disagreeing with persuasion Really only going to have internal dialogue if you are thinking centrally NOT peripherally Social Learning Theory LEARN aggression from parents media people around you etc You are being TAUGHT either aggressive or nonaggressive Drive Theories internal physiological drives that lead to aggression The original FrustrationAggression Hypothesis says that all frustration leads to aggression Tuesday March 31 2015 Negative Affect is then that frustration will actually lead to either aggression or nonaggression depending on what the situation is and who is there and all those other circumstances Think of Altruistic behavior as a subset of Prosocial behavior Prosocial Behavior behavior that helps someone else no matter whether or not it is motivated by just kindness or some reason that benefits themselves Altruistic Behavior behavior that helps someone else BUT it must not be motivated by a reason that benefits themselves Prosocial Aggression vs Sanctioned Aggression Prosocial Aggression required okay to do Sanctioned Aggression not required but okay Indirect Reduction to dissonance Make yourself feel better which means that you will use other things you do that are positive in your life to make up for something you are feeling dissonance over When it is an important enough issue to cause dissonance you make yourself feel better by thinking of all the other good things you do in your life Prosooial Behavior Whom do we help Attractive people People similar to ourselves People who appear to deserve sympathy rather than blame Blaming the Victim we assign responsibility to the victim and that way can blame them instead of sympathizing with them Belief in a Just World good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people Everyone gets what they deserve Theories of Prosocial Behavior EmpathyAltruism Hypothesis Batson we empathize and therefore we help Tuesday March 31 2015 We help for no other reason than to relieve the victim s distress Negative State Relief Model Cialdini helping occurs to relieve negative feelings We don t help the victim because they feels distress we help them because we feel distress 39 THESE ARE TWO CONFLICTING THEORIES Empathic Joy Hypothesis this model suggests we feel joy when we see others needs being met Empathy gt Help gt Joy requires feedback Feedback in that we primarily help if we are going to here about how our help was appreciated and made a difference Somewhere in between the two previous theories We feel empathy and want to help people BUT we want to know how it worked out and how we made a difference Genetic Determinism Model we help those who are genetically similar to us We help others because it means our genes will be passed on We help friends and relatives more because it will preserve our gene pool How can you increase helping Reduce Ambiguity make it clear that help is needed Foster a helpful selfconcept in others teach children to think of themselves as helpful kind of person Promote identification with hose who need help similarity breeds empathy and willingness to help Because you are more likely to help those who are in similar groups to you Example Lung cancer charities struggled in raising money because lung cancer was thought to only be caused by smoking This means that someone who does not smoke is less likely to help because they are in different groups Also belief in a just world may lead us to believe that well they smoked and brought it on themselves Teach norms that support helping behavior model and reinforce helpful behavior Tuesday March 31 2015 Focus responsibility make it so someone knows it is their responsibility to call 911 or to help in some other kind of way Opposite of Diffusion of Responsibility Stereotyping Prejudice and Discrimination Stereotype cognitive structure belief that all members of specific social groups share certain traits or characteristics Also a schema We built a schema or stereotype of the Patriots in our schema lecture Typically thought of as negative but CAN include positive aspects Can be problematic for the ones in the group who do not fit these stereotypes Example Asians are typically thought of as good at math but what about the young boy who isn t Maybe they won t receive the same help from their teacher or something like that Prejudice attitude affective negative attitudes toward the members of specific social groups Discrimination behavior negative behaviors directed toward members of social groups who are the object of prejudice BEHAVIORAL element Can be blatant or subtle Each can be bad in their own ways Example of all three A man applies for a library job who is Italian Stereotype All Italians are loud Prejudice I do not like Italian people in my library because they are too loud Discrimination I am going to ignore this person because they are too loud What groups may we hold stereotypes African American and women 2 most common Tuesday March 31 2015 Disabled Muslims Or any religious groups Older peopleSenior citizens Homeless people Homosexuals Mentally Ill individuals ConservativesLiberals Obese individuals Blondes Short people LOTS of different people are stereotyped EVERY single person has stereotypes and we all hold prejudices We can try very hard to stop these and not let them influence behavior but it is VERY challenging Because schemas are the easiest way of thinking and attributebased thinking takes a lot of effort Takes energy and commitment to do this Origins of Prejudice Social Learning Theory learning negative attitudes and beliefs about members of social groups We learn from close others friends families teachers media TV video games books Realistic Conflict Theory prejudice stems from competition for scarce resources among interdependent social groups Resources could include Jobs food land livestock homes etc and interdependent social groups are groups competing for these resources Example Sherif did a study on kids who he brought to a camp He made all the kids write down their best friend and made sure to split up the best friends into Tuesday March 31 2015 two separate groups The two groups were pitted against each other and these groups formed cose bonds within each other The kids who were previously best friends hated each other now Positive interaction did not manage to decrease prejudice between the two groups Positive interaction meaning movie nights combined dinners games etc
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