World Geography European Realm Part 2
World Geography European Realm Part 2 GR1123
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by alb1081 on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Shatrughan Singh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geoscience at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
I. European Realm A. Cultural Difference 1. Cars mostly manual transmission 2. Tips and taxes already included 3. Water costs money in restaurants B. Basic Facts 1. A population cluster but smallest continent in area 2. Ukraine is largest country in area 3. Germany is largest population 4. Eastern border is debated and complicated 5. 60% of area of U. S. but double the population 6. Europe is surrounded by water which moderates climate C. Gulf Stream 1. A river of sea water 2. A warm ocean current moving from equator to Northern Europe 3. Raises winter temperatures in Europe 4. Allows access to fishing because the water does not freeze D. Climate 1. Mostly mild climates a. C and D types E. Physical Geographic Regions 1. Central Uplands a. Heart of Europe 2. Alpine Mountains a. Mountains and Mediterranean b. Pyrenees Mountains i. Separates Iberian Peninsula from rest of Europe ii. Iberian Peninsula – Spain and Portugal 3. Western Uplands a. Old geographically (Scandinavia) 4. North European Lowlands a. Birthplace of Industrial Revolution b. Good for farming F. Population Patterns 1. Mainly in England and Germany a. Farming G. Central Uplands 1. WWII Battlefields H. Alpine Mountains 1. Switzerland and Austria 2. Pyrenees and Alps I. Western Uplands 1. Scandinavia – fjords and hills i. Fjords – U-shaped valleys created by glaciers 2. Ireland and Britain 3. Great Britain and United Kingdom are not the same a. Great Britain includes the mainland areas of Scotland and England b. United Kingdom includes Scotland, England, and Northern Ireland J. North European Lowlands 1. Very flat for farming K. Mediterranean 1. Beaches like Florida and California L. Efficiency of Europe 1. Almost at center of world 2. Peninsula of peninsulas M. Antiquity 1. Period before the Middle Ages 2. Greece and then Rome (governments) 3. City-state – a city that has its own government and which it controls the surrounding territory to form an independent state i. Ex. Athens and Sparta, Washington DC and Mexico City 4. Greeks influenced the Romans 5. Romans spread their language – Romance languages i. Lead poisoning from utensils and bowls ii. Roman Empire greater in size than Greek Empire 6. Middle/Dark Ages i. Religion over science (no personal development so “dark” times ii. Black Death iii. Galileo – Sun at center of the solar system 1. Heresy – to go against the church iv. Rise of Feudalism N. Early Modern Europe 1. Renaissance (1450s-1600s) i. A new need to expand knowledge was reborn ii. Accepting science and new ideas 2. Mercantilism – territorial control, making colonies, exploration of land i. Natural resources to sell 3. Agrarian Revolution i. Large- scale agricultural farming to sustain and make profit ii. Started system of trade for goods and services 1. System – key for a region to develop 4. Silk Roads i. Land and sea routes for cotton, silk, and spices ii. Traders being killed by pirates and tribes iii. Columbus sent to find safer route 1. Found Americas 5. Industrial Revolution i. Started in Britain, the eastward to Europe, then North America ii. Britain was start because of access of raw materials iii. James Watt – developed steam engine iv. Furnaces, textiles, steam power, iron making v. Changed population clusters because cities grew 6. Political Revolutions i. 1776 – American Revolution ii. 1789 – French Revolution 1. End of absolutism (monarchies) 2. Liberalism, socialism, nationalism, fascism a. Fascism – Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin 7. World War I i. Arch Duke Ferdinand assassination ii. Austria- Hungary vs. Serbia iii. July 1914 – November 1918 8. World War II i. 1939 – 1945 ii. Allies vs. Axis iii. Germany invaded Poland iv. UN, NATO, European Union formed O. United Nations 1. Goal is to avoid future WWII 2. Keep human and civil rights and democracy in check P. European Union 1. Economic prosperity, help during crisis, watch for the next Hitler 2. 28 countries make up the EU 3. Keep communism at bay 4. BENELUX i. Group formed by Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg 5. Supranationalism – a voluntary association in economic, political, and cultural spheres of 3 or more nations who are willing to give over the sovereignty for the benefit of everyone else 6. Brussels is the capital of EU 7. Strasbourg is the head of the European Parliament 8. Results: i. Single currency (euro) ii. Countries give up sovereignty to get help from others 9. Switzerland is not a member of the EU (it has always been neutral) 10. Devolution – reverting to one’s own sovereignty or power away from the EU i. Catalonia wants independence from Spain ii. Not interested because it’s very rural and poor iii. Former Soviet blocks and religion controlled governments iv. No interests in becoming “Democratized” Q. North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1. NATO 2. Formed by the United States for Europe 3. To help keep Europe militarily ready 4. Now globally helps to end terrorism and weapons of max destruction R. Complexity of Europe 1. Cultural Diversity i. Western Europe – rich countries ii. Germany split in west and east (rich and poor) 2. Economics i. Poorest country – Moldova ii. Richest country – Luxembourg 3. Connected Europe i. Complementarity – excess products and goods can be shared with others within the realm ii. Transferability – very easy to move goods via transport networks 4. Urbanization i. CBDs at center, then the population extends outward from center ii. Paris is the biggest city iii. European population is decreasing 1. More open to immigrants to increase population 2. Losing culture 3. Revers Assimilation – immigrant culture takes over 4. Assimilation – immigrant culture is stopped S. Human Regions of Europe 1. Germany i. Iron curtain ii. Has autobahn – highway with no speed limit 2. France i. Oldest state in the region ii. “Jeans” came from France 3. BeNeLux i. Building dams, dykes, etc. 4. Alpine States i. Czech Republic 1. Velvet divorce with Slovakia 5. Switzerland i. Banking, chocolate, watches, and cheese 6. Britain i. UK ii. Northern Ireland is protestant 7. Ireland (Republic of Ireland) i. Growing economy because of Quaternary sectors (IT) ii. English and Gaelic are national languages 8. Italy i. Tuscany, Milan, Venice, Piedmont ii. Capital is Rome iii. Milan – Turin – Genoa triangle 1. Area of industrial growth 2. Rich region 3. Southern portion (boot) is agriculture 9. Spain i. Catalonia produces 25% of all exports 1. Asking for devolution ii. Capital is Madrid 10. Gibraltar i. Under British control, but Spain claims it as territory ii. Peninsula off of Spain iii. Important because it is very close to Morocco (northern Africa) 11. Greece i. Lazy lifestyle, corrupt government 12. Balkans i. Multiple countries: 1. Serbia 2. Croatia 3. Macedonia 4. Montenegro ii. Was originally Yugoslavia iii. South of the Balkan Mountains 13. Sweden i. Largest Scandinavian country ii. Lowest Gini coefficient iii. Ikea and Spotify 14. Norway i. Fishing and oil industry 15. Denmark i. Danish ii. Copenhagen – largest port iii. Happiest place on Earth 16. Finland i. Was under control of Russian czars 17. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania i. Was part of the USSR 18. Iceland i. Eurasian and North American plate are pulling apart ii. No ice in Iceland 19. Greenland i. Former Danish colony ii. Huge fishing economy iii. All ice 20. Poland i. Capital is Warsaw ii. Decimated in WWII – Germany invaded it first 21. Ukraine i. Chernobyl Explosion (nuclear weapons) ii. Crimea – fight for land between Ukraine and Russia iii. Largest country in Europe
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