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chemistry 135

by: Esraa Hagag

chemistry 135 chem135

Esraa Hagag
Northampton Community College

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these covers the week of September 26th
chemistry of life
edward s fleming
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esraa Hagag on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem135 at Northampton Community College taught by edward s fleming in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see chemistry of life in Chemistry at Northampton Community College.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 9 Solution:  It is a homogenous mixture in which one substance, called solute is uniformly  dispersed in another substance called the solvent Kinds of solutions:  1. Solid in liquid e.g. sugar in water 2. Gas in liquid e.g. carbon monoxide in water 3. Liquid in liquid e.g. ethanol in water 4. Solid in solid e.g. brass and zinc in copper, alloys (formed by solidifying the melt) Type Example Primary solute Solvent Gas solutions Gas in a gas Air Oxygen (gas) Nitrogen (gas) Liquid solutions Gas in a liquid Soda water Carbon dioxide (gas) Water (liquid) Household ammonia Ammonia (gas) Water (liquid) Solid solutions Solid in a solid Brass Zinc (solid) Copper (sold) Steel Carbon(solid) Iron (soild) Components of solution:  Solute and Solvent  Properties of solutions:  Uniform composition throughout  Components do not separate   Usually transparent mean something u can see thru it  Transparent does not mean solution is necessary colorless  Cannot be separate by filtering Solubility:  The amount of a solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent, at a  certain temperature  Units: gram solute/ 100 gm of solvent (H 2)   unsaturated solution: solute dissolves when added to the solvent, the solution  doesn’t contain the maximum amount of solute  saturated solution: a solution that contain all the solute that can dissolve Factors affecting solubility:  Type of solute, solvent, and the temperature Solutions will form Solutions will not form Solute Solvent Solute Solvent Polar Polar Polar Nonpolar Nonpolar Nonpolar Nonpolar polar temperature  for most solids, solubility increase as temperature increase. e.g. sugar has more  solubility in hot water than cold water  for gases, solubility decrease as temperature increases. e.g. bubbles escape  from a cold carbonated soft drink as it warms  page 292 figure 9.5, page 294  page 286 e.g. 9.6  vegetable oil ­­­­ nonpolar hexane  benzene, nonpolar­­­­hexane pressure:  does not affect solubility of solids or liquids henry’s law:  for gases, as pressure of the gas over the liquid increases, solubility increases  it states that the solubility of gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of  that gas above the liquid  example: in un­open soda the CO  ga2 pressure in the “head space” is 5  atmosphere colligative properties:  it depends on the number of dissolved particles (ions and/or molecules) and not on  their kind 1. freezing point depression (antifreeze) 2. boiling point elevation (coolant), antifreeze and coolant are solutions of ethylene  glycol 3. osmotic pressure  Osmosis: can occur between two solutions of different concentration  separated by semi permeable membrane (SPM)  SPM: thin slice of some material that allows solution particles of only certain  size to pass through. e.g. cellophane, cell walls in plants and animals   In osmosis, small solvent (H 2) particles pass from dilute side to  concentrated side of SPM, solute particles are trapped  Osmosis process stops when the liquid column pressure in compartment B  becomes large enough  Osmotic pressure is proportional to solution concentrated  Look at Page 307 in your book  Osmotic pressure is important in living organism  Since cell walls are “PMS’s”, biological fluid must ahev the proper osmotic  pressure to prevent cell damage  e.g. osmotic pressure of blood plasma equals the osmotic pressure of  contents of red blood cells  two solutions with same osmotic pressure are “isotonic: no osmosis  occurs”  if red blood cells placed in distilled pure water OP of H O2(hypotonic) < OP of red blood cells (Dilute)                                (Concentrated)  cells may eventually rupture (hemolysis)  if the red blood cells are placed in very concentrated solutions OP of solution > OP of cells (Concentrated)            (Dilute)  cells will shrink and wrinkle (crenation)  IV’s contain solutions that are isotonic with red blood cells   e.g. 0.9 % (m/n) NaCL, since solutions are isotonic they are  physiological solutions, to prevent cell damage Dialysis:  in dialysis the membrane (dialysis tube) has larger holes than SPM in osmosis  allows solute as well as solvent to pass thru  solutes flow from concentrate to dilute solution  larger particles, called Colloids (red blood cells, starch, proteins) are trapped  kidney operate by dialyzing waste products (solutes e.g. urea) out of blood  stream and into urine  this is done artificially (hemodialysis) for people with kidney failure Mixture comparisons:  Type of mixture Type of  Settling Separation particles 1. Solution Small  Particle  Particles cannot be separated by  particles such s do not filters or semipermeable  as atoms,  settle  membranes ions, or small  out  For osmosis the solvent (H 2)  molecules flows thru a SPM from the dilute to concentrated solution 2. Colloids Larger  Particle  Particles can be separated by  molecules or  s do not semipermeable membranes but  groups or  settle  not by filters molecules or  out  Trapped by dialysis membrane  ions (solutes flow thru the membrane  from concentrated to dilute) 3. Suspensio Very large  Particle Particles can be separated by filters n particles that  s settle  may be  rapidly visible


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