OC 201 lec. 1 and 2 notes
OC 201 lec. 1 and 2 notes OC 201
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rell Anne Pagdilao on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to OC 201 at Oregon State University taught by Marta Torres in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Oceanography at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
OC 201 Lecture 1 Notes : 9/21 Oceans Chemistry: atmospheric CO2 in (ppmv), increasing with time Seawater pCO2 (μatm) , increasing with time Seawater pH, decreasing with time (making the ocean more acidic) Oceanography as young science: New species were discovered throughout the years (~4714) The deepest depth was discovered OC 201 Lecture 2 Notes : 9/23 Earth as a system: system: interacting set of components that behave according to “laws of nature” 4 5 major interacting subsystems: o 1. Hydrosphere: (earths water and ice) o 2. Atmosphere: (earths gaseous envelope) o 3. Geosphere: (earths solid surface and interior) o 4. Biosphere: (earths living, dead, and decaying organisms) o 5. Anthrosphere (human domination) 1. Hydrosphere(Earths water and ice) Reservoirs consist of the , ocean (97.5%) o ~ the ocean is more than 70% of the earths area o the avg depth of the ocean =3.8 km ice and snow (1.7%) Remaining (0.8%) comes from o Land surfaces (lakes/rivers) o Subsurface (soil moisture, groundwater (0.75%) ) o atmosphere ( water vapor, clouds, and precipitation) o biosphere (plants and animals) 3 Major water reservoirs: (Ocean, Ice/snow, Groundwater) Hydrologic Cycle Flux (km /yr): the rate of flow of a property/unit area. o (Sometimes, amount/time) Water flux from precipitation is greater to the oceans. 78% of all precipitation occurs over the ocean, 86% vaporation Harald Sverdrup Sverdrup (Sv) = 1 million m /s CONT. of Hydrosphere Ocean is heated from the top, causing it to be stably stratified o Warmer water floats ON cold water o Salty water SINKS under fresh water Why? Density! 5 ocean we SHOULD KNOW! 1. Arctic Ocean 2. Atlantic Ocean 3. Southern Ocean 4. Indian Ocean 5. Pacific Ocean Cyrosphere (subsystem of hydrosphere) snow river/lake ice ice sheets glaciers ice caps sea ice 2. Atmosphere ( thin envelope of gases w/ tiny particles surrounding) atmosphere has a mass equivalent to 0.07% of the mass of earth system. majority of the mass which is, greater than 99% , occurs below an altitude of 32km. Atmosphere is divided into 4 layers: 1. Troposphere (unstable) why? Weather occurs here. * Warm air at the bottom 2. Stratosphere (stable) 3. Mesosphere 4. Thermosphere What is the atmosphere composed of? nitrogen (78.08%) oxygen (20.95%) o some trace gases: Ozone Methane Carbon dioxide Aerosols and liquid particles (clouds) 3. Geosphere (earths rocks and sediments) Earths interior has 4 spherical shells: CrustMantleouter coreinner core Lithosphere consists of : Mantle & Overlying crust o Two processes modify the Lithosphere: 1. Uplift 2. Weathering/ erosion 4. Biosphere (earths living and dead organisms) READING NOTES : (2946) ORIGIN OF THE OCEANS Oldest sedimentary rocks that are found on earth are ~3.9 billion years old There have been oceans on the earth for 4 billions of years. Scientist suggested that water in the oceans and atmosphere originated in the earths mantle, then brought to the surface by volcanism. Dayglow: ultraviolet light; invisible to the naked eye, emitted by atomic oxygen in upper atmosphere. EARLY PLANET EARTH earth was thought to be a mixture of silicon compounds, iron and magnesium oxide. Earth was formed from cold matter, BUT events occurred over time causing temperatures to rise. Each new layer of accumulated material from events buried older material below it TRAPPING heat and raising earths interior temperature. after a hundred millions of years, earths interior reached the melting point same as IRON and NICKEL. 0 o Temperature of earth rose to avg. of 2000 C Less dense material from molten moved up to the surface, cooled, and solidified. As earths surface cooled, water vapor condensed to form the oceans. It is GENERALLY believed that earths atmosphere consisted of o water vapor, o hydrogen gas, o hydrogen chloride, o carbon monoxide, o carbon dioxide, o nitrogen. EARTHS AGE “How old is the earth?” Archbishop Ussher of Ireland o Counted the generations in the bible; First day of creation Oct. 23, 4004 B.C 1897, Lord Kelvin (English physicist) o calculated time necessary for molten earth to cool to achieve temperatures 20 million40 million YO 1899, Antoine Henri Becquerel o discovered radioactivity 1905, Ernest Rutherford & Bertrum Boltwood o used radioactive decay to date rocks and minerals 500 million yo 1907, Boltwood 1.64 billion years radiometric dating: uses radioactive isotopes. half life: time over which onehalf of the atoms of a radioactive isotope decay is known. Accepted age of earth is between 4.5 billion 4.6 billion years o age based on isotope studies of meteorites oldest mineral found is between 4.1 billion4.2 billion years. GEOLOGIC TIME principle divisions o four(4) eons: Hadean (4.6 to 4.0 billion years ago) Archean (4.0 to 2.5 billion years ago) Proterozoic (2.5 billion to 570 million years ago) Phanerozoic (570 million years ago) o First (3) eons known as Precambrian ; Represents 88% or all geologic times o Most of other fossils from other eons are from Phanerozoic Phanerozoic is divided into three(3) eras: o Paleozoic era of ancient life o Mesozoic era of middle life (age of reptiles) o Cenozoic era of recent life (age of mammals) NATURAL TIME PERIODS time was first defined by natural motions of the earth, sun, and moon Time: used to determine the starting point of an o Event o Event duration o Rate at which the event proceeds Year: time required by earth to complete one orbit about the sun o 365 ¼ days As earth orbits around sun, those who live in temperate zones and polar zones are conscious of seasons and lengths and periods of daylight. Why seasonal change? o earth moves along its orbit with axis tilted 23 ½ from verticle. o Northern hemisphere receives MAX hours of sunlight when North pole is tilted TOWARD sun Northern hemispheres summer o During the same period, South pole is tilted AWAY from sun causing least sunlight for Southern hemisphere. Southern hemispheres winter o When earth is closest to the sun, North pole is tilted AWAY from sun Northern hemispheres winter o South pole is tilted TOWARD sun Southern hemisphere summer During summer in the Northern hemisphere, o periods of daylight are longer around the North Pole o shorter around the South pole Vice Versa Tropic of Cancer: periods of daylight in the northern hemisphere incease as the sun moves north to stand above 23 ½ N. o Summer solstice: June 2122, day with the longest period of daylight o Arctic Circle: 66 ½ N o Antarctic circle: 66 ½ S Autmnal equinox: September 23 (on or about) Tropic of Capricorn; this position marks the winter solstice o Beginned of winter in Northern hemisphere Vernal equinox: march 21 Moon requires 27 ½ days to orbit the earth o Lunar month: Period of 29 ½ days o In lunar month, moon passes though 4 phases New moon First quarter Full moon Last quarter o 4 phases match four weeks of the month Gregorian calendar; present arrangement taken after pope Gregory XIII o Made changes necessary to correct old Julian calendar. o Adopted in the US in 1752 Day derives from earths rotation o 1 day= 24 hrs, this is the mean, solar day Sidereal day: time required for earth to make a complete rotation with respect to a far distant point in space. o 4 minutes shorter than mean solar day EARTHS SHAPE earth is not rigid and tends to flatten at the poles and bulge along the equator o shorter polar radius (6356.8 km; 3950 mi) o longer equatorial radius (6378.1 km; 3963 mi) o earth is smooth highest mountain, MT. Everest in Himalayas (8840m or 29,000ft) above sea level. Deepest ocean depth, Challenger deep in Mariana Trench of pacific ocean is about 11,000m (36,000 ft) LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE latitude: parallels are referenced to the equator o value is determined by the angle between latitude line and the equatorial plane at earths center longitude: meridians are formed at right angles to the latitude lines o referenced to a chosen point o o 0 longitude line: prime meridian o 180 longitude line: international date line 1 nauticle mile= one minute of arc length of latitude or longitude at equator. MEASURING LATITUDE latitude could be determined by measuring elevation of a point in the sky above the horizon. o Polaris: North star Since the middle ages, sailors have been able to estimate their latitude by measuring elevation of Polaris above horizon LONGITUDE AND TIME Gemma Frisius( Flemish astronomer); proposed theory for using time to determine longitude in 1530 Zenith; highest elevation above a reference longitude MODERN NAVIGATION Global positioning System (GPS) worldwide radio navigation system consisting of o 24 navigational satellites, o 21 operational o 3 active spares o 5 ground based monitoring stations WATER ON EARTHS SURFACE earth developed a circular orbital path earth is about o 152 x10 km (94 x 10 mi) from the sun in June 6 6 o 147x 10 km (91x 10 mi) away from the sun in December earths orbit keeps annual heating / cooling cycle in moderation mean surface temperature is ~16 C (61 F) o o allowing water to exist as Gas, Liquid, Solid HYDROLOGIC CYCLE water occurs as a liquid in o oceans o rivers/ lakes o below ground surface water occurs as solid in o glaciers o snow packs o sea ice water occurs as gas in o water droplets o vapor in atmosphere Reservoirs: where water resides Hydrologic cycle: movement of water through reservoirs o Water taken out of the ocean o moved into atmosphere by evaporation most water returns to the ocean via Precipitation o some air currents carry water vapor over continents precipitation in the form of rain or snow transfers water o from atmosphere land surface (then into soil) taken up by plants runs off into rivers/ streams/ lakes OR remains as snow or ice for long periods Some water returns to atmosphere via evaporation or o Transpiration: release of water by plants o Sublimation: conversion of ice water vapor Melted snow and ice, rivers, ground water, and runoff move water back to oceans in a complete cycle , maintaining its volume Properties of climate zones are determined through surface temperatures & evaporation, precipitation patters Transfer of water between atmosphere and oceans alter salt content of the ocean surface water RESERVOIRS AND RESIDENCE TIME hydrologic cycle must maintain a balance between addition and removal of water from earths reservoirs. o rate of removal = rate of addition Residence time: avg. length of time that a water molecule spends in any reservoir Residence time can be calculated by o Dividing volume of water in reservoir by rate that water is displaced Volume/ rate of displacement o Large reservoir usually has a longer residence time because of the large volume o Small reservoir has shorter residence time= water is replaced quickly Size also determines how reservoir reacts to changes in rate that water is gained or lost. o Large reservoirs show little effects of change o Small reservoirs alter substantially when exposed to same gain/loss About 380,000 km (91,167 mi ) of water move throughout the atmosphere each year 3 3 Atmosphere holds ~ 13,000 km (3119 mi ) of liquid at any one time o Water in atmosphere can be replaced 29x each year Atmospheric water has short residence time 3 3 Annually, 320,000 km (76,772 mi ) is evaporated from oceans o 60,000 km (14,395 mi ) is evaporated from the land DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER about 70% of earths landmasses are in Northern Hemisphere (middle latitudes) Southern Hemisphere is the water hemisphere o Lands located mostly on tropical latitudes and polar region ONE WORLD OCEAN DIVIDED INTO FIVE we commonly divide the world ocean into 5 separate oceans (ocean basins) o pacific o atlantic o Antarctic o Indian o Southern shapes of the ocean basins and mountains, trenches, plains on the sea floor influence o ocean currents o transport heat o salt o nutrients o pollutants Three major oceans o Pacific o Atlantic o Indian Smallest geographically : Arctic ocean Southern ocean is the NEWEST Pacific ocean has greater surface area, volume, and avg. depth than any other ocean. Mariana trench (western pacific): Deepest point in the world ocean (10,911m OR 35,797 ft) Vasco Nuriez de balboa (Spanish explorer) o Sighted the pacific ocean in 1513 Name of the Pacific ocean came from Ferdinand Magellan (portugese explorer) o Mar Pacifico, “peaceful sea” for calm weather he and his crew would enjoy crossing Pacific covers a little over 1/3 of earths surface and almost ½ of worlds ocean surface o o At its max width near 5 N, it stretches 19,800 km (12,300 mi) from Indonesia Columbia o ~25,000 islands in the pacific ( majority south of equator) marginal seas along the eadges of Pacific o Celebes sea o Coral sea o East China Sea o Sea of Japan o Sulu Sea o Yellow sea Atlantic ocean is the second largest , ½ the size of the pacific o Name is derived from Greek mythology “Sea of Atlas” o Herodotus (Greek geographer) 450 B.C o Land area that drains into the Atlantic is 4x larger than both the Pacific and Indian ocean Why? Because of high mountain ranges that dominate the western coasts of North and South America, as well as South Asia o Irregular coastline of Atlantic includes a number of bays, gulfs, and seas Large ones include Carribean sea, Gulf of mexico, Meditteranean sea, north sea, Baltic sea. Indian Ocean is primarily a Southern Hemisphere ocean o A little smaller than Atlantic but quite deep o Named after nation of India o Northern most extant of Indian ocean is in Persian Gulf at ~30 N o o o Separated from Atlantic ocean to the west by 20 E meridian o 10,000 km (6,200 mi) wide between southern tips of Africa and Australia o includes 4 largest island, Madagascar Southern Ocean made of southern most waters of the world ocean o Where northward flowing Antarctic waters meet relatively warmer waters Region called Antarctoc Convergeoce Located between 45 S and 60 S depending on longitude o 4 largest ocean and second shallowest o unique because it complete encircles the globe (extending south to shores of Antarctica Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the 5 o Occupies a roughly circular basin over the north pole region o Connected to pacific ocean by Bering Strait and to Atlantic ocean through Greenland sea o Floor divided into 2 deep basins (by underwater mountain range) o Major flow of water into and out of is through North Atlantic Ocean o Partly covered by sea ice throughout the year HYPSOGRAPHIC CURVE another method used to depict landwater relationships Hypsographic curve: depth of elevation vs. earths area Looking at picture in text (Fig 1.19) o 29% of earths surface is above sea level o 71% is below sea level o 85% of ocean floor is deeper than 2 km hypsographic curve helps us to also see areas well below the sea surface are much greater than the areas well above it o there are basins beneath the sea 4x greater in area THAN in land in mountains Mount Everest, highest land peak o Reaches 8.84 km (5.49 mi) above sea level Oceans deepest trench o 10.91 km (6.78 mi) below sea level Mean elevation of land is 840 m (2750 ft) Mean depth of the ocean 3688m (12,100 ft)
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