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week 6

by: Hinds Notetaker
Hinds Notetaker

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About this Document

"What do we do if a behavior isn't occurring at all? You must teach a new behavior" RL
Behavior Analysis
Robin Leonard
Class Notes
shaping;, self-injury, applications, animals, Examples, problem-behaviors, successive-approximations
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Shaping Ch 9 1 discussion post due this Friday! What do we do when the behavior we want to occur isn’t occurring at all? -you must teach a new behavior Defining Shaping  Shaping: the differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior o First you reinforce for just trying, even if the attempt is nowhere near target; after a while you reinforce only if it gets better- you do this as it gets closer to what you’re looking for o -differential reinforcement: a procedure in which a specific desirable behavior is followed by a reinforce but other behaviors are not; you reinforce one behavior but not another; instead of constantly punishing for what you don’t want, you should reinforce what you want/ or the opposite behavior o Successive Approximations: in the process of shaping, each successive approximation is a behavior that more closely resembles the target behavior; closer and closer to the target behavior every time o Incorporates the principles of reinforcement and extinction  Should be a constant 3:1 ratio of comments; you talk about what you appreciate 3x more than the negative things you comment on; this is for every scenario- every type of person Therapeutic Uses of Shaping  Generate a novel behavior: brand new to the person  Reinstate a previously exhibited behavior- rehabilitation  Change some dimension of an existing behavior- could increase amount of time spent doing something (frequency of eye contact), how they do something (volume of voice)  Beware: some problem behaviors are developed through shaping! EX: Temper tantrums; behavior getting worse leads to mother giving into tantrum; yelling at children Examples of Shaping  Teaching a child to talk; babies get reinforced for cooing and coo more because of the reinforcement and cry less; we differentially reinforce successive language  Teaching a rat to press a lever: Skinner used shaping by reinforcing certain steps of the process by starting with something they already do and successively reinforcing from there  Training animals to perform complex behaviors: teaching in steps with reinforcing- dolphin training Applications of Shaping  Rehabilitation (O’Neill & Gardner, 1983)- Used shaping to teach a lady to walk again- occupational and physical therapy- reinforced with massages; using these steps you will REINSTATE this behavior that the lady once knew how to do  Voice Volume (Jackson & Wallace, 1974; Fleece et al., 1981)- mentally handy-capped child who was socially withdrawn- reinforced successively louder and louder speech  Increase behavioral repertoire of intellectually disabled individuals (Wolfe et al., 1964; Horner, 1971)- took a lot of sessions but mostly fixed the stuttered syllable by syllable How to Use Shaping  1. Define the target behavior- stated in terms of actions that need to occur  2. Determine is shaping is the most appropriate procedure- some part of the behavior has to be happening to begin with to reinforce initially – shaping is for when behaviors don’t occur at all or if something about it needs to change  3. Identify the starting behavior- the behavior the subject already engages in  4. Choose the shaping steps- you must master one step before you move to the next- they must be big enough to make a difference but small enough not to frustrate someone- or else you are setting them up for failure- must also be reinforced immediately and consistently  5. Choose the reinforcer- use conditioned reinforcers that can be traded in for other things  6. Differentially reinforce successive approximations  7. Move through the shaping steps at a proper pace Shaping Problem Behaviors  Child tantrums or other problem behavior  Parents yelling/nagging  Showing off  Self-injurious behavior


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