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Week 4 Nutrition and Health Notes

by: Jacqueline Tkachuk

Week 4 Nutrition and Health Notes 11:709:255

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Nutritional Science > 11:709:255 > Week 4 Nutrition and Health Notes
Jacqueline Tkachuk

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About this Document

These notes cover topics including amino acids, proteins, protein digestion, nitrogen balance, malnutrition, protein synthesis, and structure of proteins.
Nutrition & Health
Dr. Miller
Class Notes
nutrition, protein, digestion, malnutrition, nitrogen
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Tkachuk on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 11:709:255 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Nutrition & Health in Nutritional Science at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
9/27/16 AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS AMINO ACIDS All are composed of an amino acid group, carboxylic acid, and a central carbon along with an R group that is what makes a particular amino acid specific -20 amino acids Essential Amino Acids i. Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine Nonessential Amino Acids i.Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Serine Conditionally Essential Amino Acids i.Arginine, Cysteine, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Tyrosine ii.Essential for certain stages of human development PROTEINS A. Complete Protein: has all the essential amino acids and that they’re all in the right proportions -just because they’re essential doesn’t mean you need the same amount of all of them -proteins that have the right ratios of consumption -ex: milk and eggs: best complete protein (compare every other food to them) -call Eggs and Milk protein 1.00 on a scale where 1.00 is the most complete B. Incomplete Proteins: when combining foods, it’ll create a higher quality of complete protein C. Complementary Proteins -ex: Legumes and Grains creates complete protein D. Protein Synthesis 1. Cell Signaling 2. Transcription: DNA to mRNA takes place in the nucleus 3. Translation: mRNA to protein takes place in the cytoplasm E. Structure of Proteins 1.Primary Structure: peptide bonds (small chain of amino acids) -order of amino acids 2. Secondary Structure: portions of protein can be either: -weak bonds between carboxylic acid and amino groups create a folded structure -ALPHA HELIX -beta folded sheets 3. Tertiary Structure: alpha and beta folds are compressed together -composed of single polypeptide 4. Quaternary Structure: 2 or more of these folded proteins aka polypeptides put together F. Protein Digestion In stomach: 1. Gastric cells release hormone gastrin in stomach which stimulates release of gastric juices (HCl, Pepsinogen, Mucus) in stomach 2. HCl denatures proteins and converts pepsinogen 3. pepsinogen hydrolyzes peptide bonds 4. Partially digested proteins enter the small intestine which stimulates the release of: i.Secretin ii. CCK 5. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate into the small intestine which neutralizes chyme 6. CCK stimulates the pancreas to release trypsinogen (proenzyme) into the small intestine which is then converted to trypsin 7. Trypsin is able to then digest polypeptides into tripeptides, dipeptides, and free amino acids 8. Intestinal enzymes in the lumen of the small intestine and within mucosal cells are then able to complete protein digestion G. Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 2 -Depends on the Situation or what state you’re in 1. When Starving: Dietary proteins undergo gluconeogenesis to create glucose which is then used as energy in the form of ATP production OR when needed: protein is broken down into amino acids and undergoes oxidation for ATP production OR proteins from muscle can be broken down into amino acids and released into the blood 2. When protein and energy needs are met: -the excess amino acids that were broken down from proteins are converted to fatty acids and stored in adipose tissue H. Protein (Nitrogen) Balance 1. Positive: when growing, during pregnancy, recovering from illness, athletic training -consuming proteins and body is using that protein 2. Negative: inadequate intake of proteins so body compensates by breaking down muscles into amino acids 3. Protein Equilibrium I. Excreting Excess Nitrogen -nitrogen is not necessarily good for you because you have excess amino acids that are broken down into ammonia so ammonia is converted into urea where urea is released into blood and excreted in urine -kidneys can work really hard to eliminate excess urea 1. in the liver the amino group is removed through a process called deamination and converted to ammonia 2. Ammonia is then converted to a less toxic form called urea. 3. Urea is released into the blood 4. The kidneys then filter the urea out of the blood where it is then excreted in the urine. J. RDAs for Essential Amino Acids -Leucine is needed the most out of the essential amino acids K. Recommended Protein Intakes -Need for dietary protein -only source of essential amino acids -only practical source of nitrogen 3 -10 to 35 percent of daily energy intake -RDA for adults -.8 grams per kg of body weight per day (.8g/kg/day) -Infant and child needs slightly higher -Adequate energy L. Types of Malnutrition 1.Acute -wasting 2. Chronic -stunting 3.Kwashiorkor -deficiency of protein 4. Marasmus -deficiency of protein and carbohydrates -severe deprivation of food for a long time -impaired brain development 4


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