Intro to world geography - week 7
Intro to world geography - week 7 1123
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Baker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro world geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Intro to World Geography Week 7 - September 26- 30, 2016 Political Revolutions - early Europe: monarchs had absolute power, with few given to the people -by the end of the industrial revolution, Monarchs on their way out… -French revolution ended the absolute power on Monarchs in Europe (late 1700s) - creation of the modern nation-state: -the concept of nationalism - having pride in your country; extreme patriotism(19th century) -cultural identity for groups of humans - democracy/ Parliamentary systems: -rebellion against absolute political power (monarchy) -separation between the church and the state -not really (Church of England; the Vatican) Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) - not a “sudden” event lasted 100 years -started in the UK moving east before moving to the US (post Civil War) -Technical innovations occurred in the British industry: -use of new materials (steel, etc.) -usage of thermal energy to produce mechanical energy -mechanized labor replaced human and animal labor -production -transportation (rail) - Britain was the origin, why? -access to raw materials from around the globe - textiles, steam power (boats and trains) Iron making (furnaces, ships, stoves, cannons, weapons) - France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia stared getting involved with supplying raw materials… eventually producing their own - lots of social inequality - general exploitation -child labor -long working hours -safety -very low pay -most people didn't have choice… -if they complained, they were replaced WW1 Participants - “the war to end all wars” - “the great war” - two groups the central powers and the allies - WW1 July 1914- Nov 1918 - 9 million people were killed in Europe - Western Front in France and Eastern Front in Russia - 1st war where Chemical Weapons were used - trench warfare (main military strategy) - Military strategy did not match the technology of the day Results of WW1 - technology grew tremendously - tanks, guns ,aircraft, communication, submarines, chemical warfare - Showed the US was a legitimate world power - was neutral at start of war - Balkans, Hungary, Turkey became free from the Ottoman Empire - Treaty of Versailles - made Germany pay - Fascism grew, nationalism or nation state patriotism grew in Germany as a result Treaty of Versailles and the league of nations - ended the war - Versailles was intended to punish Germany, and prevent them from ever gaining military power again… - created the problems that led to WW11 - the League of Nations… - lasted 26 years - Principle mission was to maintain world peace - lacked authority and control: lots of issues… - was later replaced by the United Nations (UN) WW11 (1939-1945) - 61 countries involved - started on September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland - 85 million people were killed (21 million of which were Russian) - deadliest conflict in human history - two sides - allied powers - axis powers - Blitzkrieg = “lightning war” - the holocaust happened: concentration camps were for labor and if the jews couldn't work they were killed; as the war went on the camps got worse aftermath of WW11 - decolonization of lands - (India, Asia, African Countries) - new countries were drawn - Israel was created after WW11 - Cold war and Nuclear race - the UN, European Union, IMF and NATO were formed The United Nations (UN) - a product of WW11 (replaced the league of nations) - started with 51 states, today has 193 countries - major goal was/is to avoid WW111; other goals: - human rights - diplomacy over conflict - avoid genocides The European Union (EU) - major goal was to rebuild Europe Economically - reduce tariffs between European Countries - also a product of WW11 - produced by Europe not the US - US was involved in helping it get on its feet (i.e. Marshall Plan- keep communism at bay) - $13 billion to help rebuild both physical, economic, and political sectors - Supernationalism: a voluntary association in economic, political, and cultural spheres of 3 or more nations who are willing to give over the sovereignty for mutual benefit - today 28 countries are in the EU (2016) - the capital is located in Brussels Current Day EU - allows citizens to move between countries for work without passports - created central bank and currency (1999) - Euro is more powerful than the American Dollar (1 euro is roughly $1.15) - greek Epsilon (symbol for the cradle of humanity) - helped growth in infrastructure, flow of money, labor, and goods - taxes collected in rich countries are used for non - prosperous ones Brexit - two reasons: -people had a fear of immigration -people felt they didn't have total control over bureaucracy - three main political powers -David Cameron -Teresa May -Boris Johnson - now what? -Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to stay in NATO - north Atlantic treaty organization -created in 1949 to stabilize Europe after WW11 -established by the US (NOT EUROPE) -more concerned with security than economics - helped Europe militarily against the Soviet Union - today it is more focused with terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and cyber security - now focused globally not just Europe International Monetary Fund (IMF) - Major goals: -secure financial stability -grow international trade and reduce poverty - included 188 countries - established to help rebuild economies after WW11 and the help avoid another great depression - Provides: -guidance to central banks and analysis of economic trends globally -aid to help fight poverty Countries of Europe Germany - 82 million people - initially made up of several tribes, royal families -unified late 1800s early 1900s - was divided after WW11 -west Germany = part of Europe -east Germany = USSR - contains 16 states today - highly urbanized -89% of the population - a leader in Europe manufacturing/ economic stability -largest economy in Europe -has the Autobahn(interstate system) France: - 64 million people in France - oldest state in Europe -urban: Paris 2.2 million people - contains the highest mountain in Europe: -Mount Blanc - Huge in Agriculture (biggest producer in Europe) -cattle, grapes, cheese Great Britain - the United Kingdom -62.7 million people -regions:’ -England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland - Surrounded by water - North Sea, English Channel, and the Atlantic ocean - the US’s strongest global ally - National Dish: Chicken Tikka Masala Ireland - highest growing economy in the EU -uses the Euro - Gained independence from the UK in 1921 - conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants -Irish Republican Army (IRA) - English and Gaelic are the national languages Italy - 60.5 million people - major regions or states: -Tuscany, Milan, Venice, Peidmont - Rich urbanized North - Poor rural south - Milan- Turin-Genoa triangle -heavy manufacturing - Milan is the largest city in Italy - Sicily is very poor and underdeveloped -origin of La Cosa Nostra (Sicilian Mafia) Issues in the Balkans - a result of the fall of Communist Yugoslavia -ethnic war in the 1990s - Serbia (2006) -largest in area and population (7.2 million) - Montenegro (2006), Kosovo (2008), Croatia (1991) - Bosnia was the trouble maker after the fall of Yugoslavia - Macedonia (mostly Muslims), Montenegro (mostly serbs), Kosovo Ukraine - major divisions after the cold war - country divided politically -east = pro Russia -west = pro Europe - Russia needs access to the ocean and resources -military and economic factor