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Geology 100, Chapter 5

by: Sarah Martin

Geology 100, Chapter 5 Geology 100

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Geology > Geology 100 > Geology 100 Chapter 5
Sarah Martin

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About this Document

Notes covering the beginning of chapter 5.
Geology 100
Sabreen Ata Gad
Class Notes
Geology, 100, Kansas State, Chapter, 5
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 100 at Kansas State University taught by Sabreen Ata Gad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Geology 100 in Geology at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 5: Rock cycle PIC in textbook Igneous environments: in Yellowstone; volcanic area with less plant cover; Valles Caldera and light colored ash; dark volcanic layers with dark lava flows (Cerros del Rio); huge crystals (2 meters); all formed by igneous activity in different stages; main parts: Valles Caldera, smaller volcanos, huge crystals Textures: phaneritic: crystals that are visible to the unaided eye aphanitic: don’t have visible crystals - rapid cooling The following are measuring crystal size or from most rough to most smooth: Pegmatite: bumpy Course grained: mms or cms Medium grained: mms Fine grained ^these reflect cooling process - The more quickly cooled, the finer grained Volcanic glass: very quickly cooled Porphyritic: (phenocrysts) course grain inside lots of fine grains - 2 grain sizes Vesicular: porous; light weight because full of holes that were air pockets Welded: looks like squished rocks (not porous); particles of pumice and volcanic ash are flattened by overlying ash Volcanic Breccia: formed by explosive eruptions of ash and rock fragments from lava flow Cooling rate and texture: Slow cooling: (days) light colored, squished; cooling at great depth Moderate cooling: medium grain size; cooling at medium depth Fast cooling: shallow depth; temperatures vary; fine grains Slow then fast cooling: solidification started at depth then was brought to the surface The following are organized by highest part of a volcano to the lowest part: Column of volcanic ash: ash cools before accumulating on surface Pyroclastic flow: hot gas, ash, rock fragments Eruption of lava Rapid cooling at shallow depth Slow cooling then fast cooling Slower cooling at depth Pegmatites: water-rich parts of magma Be able to classify igneous rocks: size of grain, shape, COLOR Identify intrusive igneous: granite - felsic (lighter); diorite - intermediate (medium color); gabbro - mafic (darker); peridotites - ultramafic (darkest) Cont. identify extrusive igneous rocks: rhyolite, andesite, basalt, ultramafic lava


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