Cardiovascular Adaptations AL 3500
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AL 3500 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Godfrey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see scientific basics of coaching 1 in Athletic Leadership at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Cardiovascular Adaptations of the Heart We have four chambers of the heart and they are four different pumping systems o Remember that the right side is on the left side of your paper. o 1 pump comes from the right atrium to the right ventricle then out through the pulmonary artery and into lungs (to get oxygen). Then it will return to the heart through the pulmonary vein and enter the left atria, then the left ventricle. Then it will leave the heart through the aorta and go through the body to distribute oxygen. When blood enters the right side of the heart, it is depleted of oxygen. o The left and right side of the heart are separated by the intraventricular septum. This prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood. During heavy exercise, the demand for oxygen may be 15-25 times greater than at rest. Your demand for oxygen is MUCH greater. o This is why the heart and lungs are designed the way they are. o The primary purpose is to deliver oxygen and remove wastes (lactic acid) from bodily tissues. It also transports nutrients, helps with temperature regulation, and maintains oxygen and carbon dioxide homeostasis in the body. Terminology: o Heart Rate: the number of times the heart beats per minute The lower the resting heart rate the better. o Stroke Volume: Volume of blood pumped per beat of the heart Measuring device. Like a water balloon. IT will expand out and stretch a certain amount and then pump it through the body. o Cardiac Output: HR x SV Heart rate x Stroke Volume The overall how hard/fast the heart is worked. The most important components of VO2. In order to meet the oxygen demands in working muscles during excersie, 2 major adjustments of blood flow must occur. o Your cardiac output must go up. Increase in heart rate and blood pumping. o A redistribution of blood flow from inactive muscles and other areas to working muscles (shunting). The blood is moved from its storage areas (in the core: spleen, kidneys) to the extremities for exercise. WHEN YOU GET GOOD AT THESE, YOU INCREASE YOUR “IN SHAPENESS” AND HELPS WITH AEROBIC METABOLISM Heart Muscle (Myocardium) o Heart muscle differs from skeletal muscle in several different ways Totally created from muscle cells. The muscle fibers of the heart are all interconnected When one cell is stimulated, the whole muscle contracts. The heart is the only muscle in the body that does this. If the other muscles in the body did this, then you would be super human and probably have a 13 ft. vertical jump. The heart has only one fiber type because it doesn’t need to exist in glycolysis or AtP-PC. It only has type 1 (slow twitching) fibers Highly aerobic in nature with extensive capillary supply and large numbers of mitochondria. The heart muscle is striated like skeletal muscles and contracts through the Sliding Filament Theory. Cardiac Cycles: o Refers to the repeating pattern of contraction and relaxation of the heart. Systole: contraction phase of the heart When the heart contracts, it pushes blood out to the body. Diastole: relaxation phase of the heart. When the heart relaxes, the heart can fill up with blood Blood Pressure: We are looking at the ability to produce activity o Official definition: The force exerted by blood against the atrial walls and is determined by how much blood is pumped and the resistances to blood flow. o Normal BP is 120/80 at rest The more fit you are, the 120 goes down. We rarely see the bottom number go down at rest. You do not want those numbers to go up while at rest, especially the bottom number. When you exercise, the top number will go up. o Top number is your systolic pressure and the one that we pay attention to when we exercise. The pressure generated as blood is ejected from the heart o Bottom number is the Diastolic Pressure Pressure generated during ventricular relaxation. o Pulse Pressure: Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure. (120-80=40; PP=40) o Mean Arterial Pressure (Will not ask us to do this on an exam) Average pressure during a cardiac cycle Determines the rate of blood flow through the systemic system Are there possibilities of blood clots or aneurisms? Calculated by: MAP= DBP + 0.33(PP) The higher this number is, the less healthy you are and the more in danger you are for health issues. o High Blood Pressure 140/90 BP can increase by: (bolded are based on exercise…not bad) Increase in blood volume Increase in Heart rate Increase in Blood viscosity: how thick your blood is. The thicker the blood, the harder the heart has to work. This can happen with dehydration in athletes. Increase in Stroke volume Increase in Peripheral resistance: the ability for the vessels to open and close. How well the vessels dilate and constrict. Can cause clogged arteries. Electrical Activity of the Heart o A recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle is called an electrocardiogram (ECG). o Myocardiial cells have the unique potential for spontaneous electrical activity. o Limited to a special region of the right atrium call the SA node The natural pacemaker of the heart. Tells it to slow down if not as much comes back to the heart. If there is a lot of blood, then the pacemaker tells the heart to beat faster. o Because all of the fibers are connected, each contraction uses all the fibers and at a maximal contraction. Cardiac Output: o The product of HR and SV together o Can go up when you increase either one or both. (Usually the first one is the HR). o HR is controlled by the SA node o SV is regulated by: (limited by how big the heart is) don’t have to know for test End-diastolic volume (how much blood is in the heart at rest) Aortic BP Strength of the ventricular contraction. Hemodynamics: o The study of blood flow and the relationship between pressure, flow, and resistance. The circulatory is supposed to be a closed loop system. One continuous system. One pump from the heart will cycle blood continuously through the body and back to the heart. Blood flow results from pressure differences between the ends of the system. Physical Characteristics of blood o Composed of two physical components Plasma Cells: Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Red Blood Cells: contain hemoglobin, which is used for the transport of oxygen. Blood Flow is increased by: o Increase in blood pressure o Decrease in resistance During exercise, a five-fold increase in blood flow can be generated. If this only relied on an increase in BP then it would be very dangerous. The ability for blood vessels to dilate and shrink is extremely important. Therefore, increase in blood flow is achieved primarily through a decrease in resistance with a slight increase in pressure. More blood will go towards the legs and less towards the spleen. o The most important factor in determining resistance to blood flow is: the radius of the blood vessel While viscosity and length play a role, vessel radius plays the GREATEST effect on pressure. Changes on Oxygen delivery during exercise o During exercise the body is trying to get out of oxygen deficit and into oxygen metabolism. Blood pressure, stroke volume, and pressure go up. Graphs: As intensity of exercise (VO2) goes up, heart rate will go up. (There is a heart rate max. It is around the same as your VO2 max) AS INTENSITY OF EXERCISE GOES UP, STROKE VOLUME INCREASES. But there is a limit to it. At about 40% of VO2 max, the heart cant expand anymore so you see a continuation (straight horizontal line). Any changes in cardiac output past that point are attributed to heart rate. As intensity increases, BP increases like heart rate. When these things are healthy, your blood pressure can keep going up, but if you are not, your body will stop you and will not let the heart over work it. Changes in HR and BP that occur during exercise reflects the: o Type and intensity of exercise o Duration o Environmental conditions Transition from rest to exercise: o At the onset of exercise: Rapid increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output o the increase is within the first second after exercise begins. Incremental Exercise o HR and CO increase in direct proportion to VO2 (soccer, volleyball, basketball) o Both HR and VO2 reach a plateau at 100% VO2 Limit Oxygen consumption during activity (How the body uses oxygen) o Lung size o Hemoglobin content (we like to destroy these with smoking) The more you exercise, the better hemoglobin works in the body o SV o Capillary length/density o Volume of mitochondria What limits oxygen consumption during activity? o VO2 is limited by a combination of these o Very individualized o Genetics plays a role (lung size, heart size, fiber type)