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Biology 101 Notes Week 1

by: Aubrey Sage

Biology 101 Notes Week 1 Bio 101

Marketplace > Central Washington University > Biology > Bio 101 > Biology 101 Notes Week 1
Aubrey Sage
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About this Document

Scientific Method, Basic Scientific Knowledge
Fundamentals of Biology
Sofia Bernstein
Class Notes
Science, Biology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubrey Sage on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 101 at Central Washington University taught by Sofia Bernstein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology in Biology at Central Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Biology 101 Notes WEEK OF SEPTEMBER 22 – SEPTEMBER 29 AUBREY STRAUCH Biology 101: Chapter 1: Scientific Thinking  Section 1  Science is more than collection of facts, process for understanding  Science: intellectual activity (i.e. observation, description, experimentation and explanation of natural phenomenon  Biology: the study of living things  Biological Literacy: ability to use the process of scientific inquiry to think creatively about real world issues, communicate thoughts, integrate ideas into decision making process  Superstition: irrational beliefs that actions or circumstances, not logically related to a course of events, can influence an outcome  I.e. if a black cat crosses your path, something bad will happen to you  Section 2  Scientific Method: process of examination and discovery  Scientific Method Steps:  Step One: Make Observations  Step Two: Form a Hypothesis  Step Three: Devise a Testable Prediction  Step Four: Conduct an Experiment  Step Five: Draw Conclusions and Make Revisions  Keep in Mind: The Scientific Method rarely proceeds in a straight line  Ex: conclusions can often lead to new observations and the redefining of hypotheses  Hypothesis: proposed explanation for phenomenon  The hypothesis must establish two things:  Establish an alternate explanation for phenomenon  Generate testable predictions  Null Hypothesis: a negative statement that explains that there is no relationship between the factors that exist  Keep in Mind: any one of the several possible explanations could be true  Theory: a hypothesis for natural phenomenon that’s exceptionally well supported by data  Section 3  Four Elements Common to Most Experiments  1: Treatment  Experimental conditions applied to individuals  The factor (independent variable) is an explanatory variable manipulated by the experimenter  2: Experimental Group  A group of individuals exposed to treatment  3: Control Group  A group of individuals treated identically to experimental group, but NOT exposed to treatment  4: Variables  Characteristics of experimental system that are subject to change  Minimize the differences between control and experimental groups  Blind Experiment: the experiment’s subjects don’t know what treatment (if any) that they receive  Double Blind Experiment: neither the experimental subjects nor experimenter know which treatment a subject receives  Experiments are randomized, subjects are randomly assigned to experiment and control groups  Watch out for biases  Repeatability is key in experiments  Section 4  Common Visuals in Biology:  Bar Graphs  Line Graphs  Pie Charts  Common Elements of Effective Graph Presentations of Data:  Title  Data Points  Axes (X and Y)  Independent Variable: x axis, manipulated variable  Dependent Variable: y axis, dependent on the independent variable  Statistics: set of analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from their gathered data  Can quantify and summarize large amounts of information, making it possible to draw accurate conclusions  Can also help us identify relationships (or lack of) between variables  Types of Relationships:  Positive Correlation: positive relationship between variables  Ex: more firefighters at fire, fire is larger and causes more damage  Correlation is NOT causation  Pseudoscience: individuals who make science sounding claims that aren’t supported by trustworthy, methodical scientific studies  Anecdotal Observations: based on one or fewer observations, people attempt to conclude whether there is or isn’t a link between two things  Can lead people to believe in links between two phenomena, when there aren’t any  There Are Limits to Science:  The Scientific Method will never prove/ not prove the existence of God  It will never understand what’s morally right or wrong  What is beauty?  Scientific Method and The Acquisition of Knowledge:  Scientific Method is empirical  Unique in that it measures phenomena  But there are limits  Value judgements and Subjective Information (i.e. faith) outside the realm of science  Moral statements ad ethical problems


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