Week 6 - Proteins
Week 6 - Proteins Nutr 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by rgslc8 on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutr 1020 at University of Utah taught by Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health in Nutrition at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Proteins 2 --- September 29 How much protein do we need each day? 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of healthy body weight o 11% should be from essential amino acids Example: Man (70 g): 56 grams of protein daily Example: Woman (58 g): 46 grams of protein daily Requirement is higher for certain conditions: pregnancy and growth (40% should be essential amino acids) Food Sources of Protein Eggs, salmon, chicken, cheese, lentils, vegetables My Plate o Dairy: 8-10 grams per serving o Protein: 7 grams per serving Protein and Nutrition Labels No daily value listed for protein Current scientific evidence indicates that protein intake is not a public health concern for adults and children over 4 years of age A DV % is required to be listed if a claims is made for protein, such as “high in protein” Animal Protein vs. Plant Protein Diet rich in animal products o Low in beneficial substances found in plants Fiber, minerals, phytochemicals, vitamins o High is saturated fat and cholesterol o Meat is one of the richest sources of protein o Excessive intake of processed red meat linked to cancer and cardiovascular disease o Nutrition experts recommendation: better to focus on poultry, fish, nuts, legumes, and seeds to meet protein needs Modifications of Amino Acids Amino acids undergo several modifications, depending on the needs of various body tissues o Amino Acids Proteins o Amino Acids Non Essential Amino Acids o Amino Acids Energy o Amino Acids Glucose o Amino Acids Fat With excess protein intake, amino acids are converted to fat as a last resort Amino Acids Ammonia Urea o Burden for kidneys and liver Why Do we Need Proteins? Functions of Proteins o 1. Producing vital body structures Every cell contains protein Each day adults make about 250 g of protein o 2. Contributing to Immune function (Defense) Components of immune system o 3. Forming hormones and ensymes Example: insulin is composed of 51 amino acids o 4. Providing Energy Protein supply little energy for a weight-stable person Proteins are a costly source of calories, considering the amount of processing the liver and kidneys must perform o 5. Forming Glucose Brain uses 19% of body’s energy requirement. If the glucose level decreases in blood, liver will synthesize glucose to form amino acids o 6. Contributing to acid-base balance and maintaining fluid balance o 7. Contributing to Satiety Protein provides the highest feeling of satiety after a meal Protein (nitrogen) balance Protein balance determines gain or loss of body protein and determined by nitrogen balance o Protein (nitrogen) input: dietary protein o Protein ( nitrogen) output: feces, urine, sweat o Positive protein balance: more input than output o Negative protein balance: output greater than protein intake o Protein Equilibrium: balance protein intake Protein Calorie Malnutrition Diets for children and infants need sufficient high quality protein Food Proteins Related Allergies Food allergies: an unpleasant immune system reaction after a certain food is eaten Food allergy: the immune system mistakes a food protein for a harmful invader More than 50 million Americans have a food allergy o Eight major allergens account for 90% of allergies: milk, wheat, eggs, soybeans, peanuts, tree nuts, shell fish, fishes Does Eating a High Protein Diet Harm you? For most healthy people, high protein isn’t harmful High protein intake may overburden the kidneys High protein intake is not recommended for people who have diabetes, kidney disease, or one kidney Animal proteins may contribute to kidney stones High Protein Diet increases urine output posing a risk for dehydration o Must increase water intake Amino Acid Supplements Athletes use branched chain amino acids to o Improve exercise performance o Build muscles o Reduce protein and muscle breakdown during intense exercise Dieters use to help in weight loss Consuming protein in the form of amino-acid supplement may lead to toxicity o Intake of amino acid supplements chemically similar amino acids compete for absorption sites triggering amino acid imbalance in the intestinal tract toxicities of individual amino acids In Canada, the sale of individual amino acids is banned
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