Types of Societies - whole week - test 3 notes
Types of Societies - whole week - test 3 notes SOCY 1000 - 003
Popular in Sociology: Global Perspective
SOCY 1000 - 003
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayden Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 1000 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Carl Backman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
Reviews for Types of Societies - whole week - test 3 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/30/16
Types of Societies (9/28) Wednesday, September 28, 20111:02 AM Types of Societies (Overview: Hunting and Gathering) • Typology of Societies ○ Based on how societies make a living ○ Primary types: 1) Hunting and Gathering □ No plant cultivation 2) Horticultural □ Cultivation but no plow (simple and advanced) ® Simple or advanced: based on what metal they use 3) Agrarian 1) Cultivation with plows 2) Can use underside of the dirt 4) Industrial 1) Use of inanimate energy a) Oil b) Electricity 2) Engines and what not o pull plows ○ Secondary Types 1) Fishing 1) Stay in same place and fish 2) Herding 1) Pastoralism 2) Breeding sheep or goat 3) Maritime 1) Fishing, but also trade using water 4) Hybrid 1) Combination of multiple types a) Ex: hunter gathering/ farming (while also using metal tools) ○ Schneider and Silverman § 4 or 5 basic types of societies □ Cite the 6th edition of Lenski and Nolan § Now Lenski and Nolan put Herding to a secondary type □ In the 11th edition metal tools) ○ Schneider and Silverman § 4 or 5 basic types of societies □ Cite the 6th edition of Lenski and Nolan § Now Lenski and Nolan put Herding to a secondary type □ In the 11th edition ○ When did these groups begin? § Hunting and gathering □ Ever since we have homo sapiens □ 100,000 BCE § Simple horticulture □ 8,000 BCE § Advanced Horticulture □ 4,000 BCE § Simple Agrarian □ 3,000 BCE § Advanced Agrarian □ 1,000 BCE § Industrial □ 1,800 CE ○ Murdock's Data compilation § Anthropologist and others have studied many cultures □ Publications scattered □ Studies don't use the same vocabulary § 1950 Murdock took info from multiple studies and put the info into a standard format by culture □ Atlas of World Cultures; Standard Cross Cultural Sample; HumanRelations Area Files ○ Criteria for Classification § Hunter Gatherers □ No plants, Metal, plow, iron, or inanimate energy § Simple Horticulture □ No Metal, plow, Iron, or inanimate energy □ Yes plants • Hunting and Gathering ○ What Homo sapiens have done for most of our existence § Omnivorous □ We eat both plants and animals ○ Hunting consequences 1) Adds protein/energy food to diet 2) Encourages/ rewards teamwork 3) Expands productivity in an area 1) Productivity = yield per unit land (Calories/acre) □ We eat both plants and animals ○ Hunting consequences 1) Adds protein/energy food to diet 2) Encourages/ rewards teamwork 3) Expands productivity in an area 1) Productivity = yield per unit land (Calories/acre) 4) Encourages gender division of labor 1) Men are stronger and typically fast and more adapt for hunting ○ Important characteristics 1) Nomadic 1) They move around (don’t have much stuff) 2) Encourages joint decision making 3) Eventually you eat all the edibles in a place and you have to move 2) Small sized groups 1) More people = more mouths to feed = moving more 3) Limited knowledge 1) Don’t know alternative living styles 2) Understand their surroundings, but not much outside of this 4) Demography 1) Equilibrium between births and deaths a) Very slow growth rates 2) Low life expectancy 3) Group size a) 40-60 5) Birth Death Equilibrium 1) High death rate from diseas and accidents 2) Diet - fertility relatinship a) Lousy diet --> lowe fertility b) Nursing reduces fertility c) Maternal mobility increase risk of miscrage 3) Late marriage, postpartum sex taboos 4) Widespread infanticide and abortion a) If there is famine then they will kill the baby 6) Families A) Extended Families a) Grandparents, parents brothers or sisters B) Bilateral descent a) Interested in both sides of the family (both mom and dad's side) C) Fictive Kin a) Godparents (called aunts and uncles) b) Honorary member because of closeness B) Bilateral descent a) Interested in both sides of the family (both mom and dad's side) C) Fictive Kin a) Godparents (called aunts and uncles) b) Honorary member because of closeness D) Clans a) Collections of families that have obligations to one another E) Maximizes support 7) Religion A) Typically animistic a) Animals have spirits b) Multitude of Gods 8) Polity A) Some will have group heads, others will not B) Everyone has equal weaponry a) Industrial developments created enormous gaps between these groups and other societies 9) Economy A) No advantage to having surplus a) No storage b) Harder to transport B) Famously do not work too hard a) No benefit to getting more than needed 10) Demise A) They were eclipsed B) Horticulturist did better a) More food grown b) Bigger bands were built because of this c) Ability to stay in one place and accumulate weaponry C) Still find HG's in places where it is hard to plant a) Deserts and Jungles D) More Factors 1) Climate change - affects animal ranges 2) Population growth 3) Growth in cultural information and technology i) Better weapons reduce game populations § Kung/San □ Bushmen • Horticulturalist ○ Cultivate plants (clear land and plant crops) ○ Requires domestication of plants i) Better weapons reduce game populations § Kung/San □ Bushmen • Horticulturalist ○ Cultivate plants (clear land and plant crops) ○ Requires domestication of plants ○ Requires knowledge of how to process the plant § Ex: wheat: remove head from Stalk, hull, remove bran, grind, mix with water, bake ○ Surplus § Can produce more food than you can eat § Allows people to focus on something more than food □ Like being a student or a professor □ Fewer than 1 of 20 Americans raise food for a living ○ Specialization § Enough surplus so you can now specialize on a particular occupation □ Ex: soldier § This creates a division of labor □ This can strengthen social integration because webuild dependent on one another □ This can also threat social integration because we may not work well with others § Those who don't make food (or any necessity) have to have a way to convince others to give them their need. ○ Domestications of Wheat § 8000 BCE (Syria - Fertile Crescent) first cultivation ○ Technology § Land is cleared by burning □ Ash works as a fertilizer § Land fairly quickly loses productivity □ Nutrients used up □ Weeds come ® Symbolic interactionist define a weed as a flower growing where you don’t want it □ Need to relocate occasionally ○ Simple vs. Advanced § Advanced - use metal □ Copper, bronze, and brass □ Holds better edges ® Valuable for tools and weapons □ Weapons improved = more warfare ○ Demography □ Copper, bronze, and brass □ Holds better edges ® Valuable for tools and weapons □ Weapons improved = more warfare ○ Demography § Larger societies than HGs □ HGs - 0.6 people per square mile □ SIMP. Horti - 14 □ Advanced Hort. - 43 □ Agrarian - 100+ § Permanent settlements □ People eventually had to move because of infertility due to over planting □ Multiple communities together to make one "society" ○ Characteristics § Accumulate property of individuals § Gender-based DOL § Trade § Warfare □ More warfare because now you must be able to defend your products § Inequality □ Some have more stuff or more technology □ Surplus may be taken § This transition from HGsto Horticulturalist wasa decisive break from separating humans from other primates (monkeys etc.) • Agrarian Societies ○ Agrarian vs. Horticulturalist § Agrarians use the plow □ Don’t burn everything, they use the dirt underneath the top soil □ Recycles plant materials into soil □ Soil needs less fallow time § Who pulls the plow □ Draft animals are key to plowing □ Stronger than humans □ Their strength requires domestication ® Not just meat, but also a worker § Inventions □ Yokes ® Harnesses for draft animals □ Stronger than humans □ Their strength requires domestication ® Not just meat, but also a worker § Inventions □ Yokes ® Harnesses for draft animals □ The Wheel and Axle § Surplus □ Even more surplus than horticulturalist □ Extra surplus allows ® Further DOL ® Cities ◊ Lots of people live together not farming § Iron □ Distinguishes simple from advanced horticulture □ Better than copper (harder)(more widely available) ○ Demography § Higher population density § Warfare encourages preference for boys □ Female infanticide ○ Economic and Social organization § Slavery □ Approved domination of one individual over another (enforced by violence) § Often estate systems □ Estate Systems ® Large landholding by a small number of people ® Landowners, then the fraction that works the land □ Often imposed during colonization ® Army defeats indigineous folks ® Colonist follow to take land granted by the crown □ History ® Feudalism - medieval Europe ® Latifundios - Latin America ® Plantations - Africa, South Asia, American South (colonized by the English) § Colonialism □ Maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people by a foreign power □ Ex: European colonies over much of the rest of the world since the 1400s ® Often result in Estate systems ○ Agrarian to Industrial dominance over people by a foreign power □ Ex: European colonies over much of the rest of the world since the 1400s ® Often result in Estate systems ○ Agrarian to Industrial § Large cities, governments, social stratification § Iron and steel technologies
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'