GEOS 212 Week 6
GEOS 212 Week 6 GEOS 212
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by madelinef on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 212 at University of Arizona taught by Joellen Russell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Tier 2 Gen Ed at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
GEOS 212 Class 10- 9/27/2016 The Atmosphere -5pts extra credit for going to GEOS social! Things to Remember Zones in the Ocean o Photic Zone (sunlight, 0-100m) o Twilight Zone (poorly lit, no photosynthesis, <1000m) o Dark Zone (no light) Sunlight does 4 things o Warms the ocean (direct vs indirect lighting) o Reflects out red light is absorbed blue light is transmitted and reflected. No red light below 10m o Drives photosynthesis o Drives evaporation and hydrologic cycle Energy of evaporation/condensation vs. warming. 540 cal/gram vs. 1 cal/gram per degree). Pressure Greater at Sea Level At top of mountain… o Light= Stronger o Temperature= Colder o Pressure= Lower Water o Water vapor in the atmosphere…Max= 3% if warm 2% if cool 1% if cold o Evaporation process Liquid-Gas (Water Vapor)- Liquid (tiny droplets) Humidity Humidity= amount of water present/ max amount air can hold Drawing: Light, Temperature, Humidity. Cycles Condensation- vapor becomes liquid, energy is released Evaporation- liquid to vapor, takes a lot of heat Evaporation- liquid-vapor, energy is put in. Requires a HUGE amount of sun energy! Released when it rains or snows. Energy Wind! Wind= sun energy converted to motion by air and water vapor Energy lightning and thunder Atmosphere transports eater and energy o Evaporation: water and energy in o Rainfall: water and energy out Sunlight revisited Warmest near the equator Convection- simple and incomplete. Wrong with new information! Atmosphere too think for simple picture Drawing: convection (realistic) Coriolis Force Moving about 1000 miles an hour Objects deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere, objects deflect to the left in the southern hemisphere. Polar easterlies- moving west (talking about where it is moving from that’s why it is opposite of name) Westerlies- moving east- very narrow and very strong rip currents. Where all the weather in the US comes from basically. Never stops unless planet stops. Easterlies- moving east, never stop unless planet stops. Rising air has increasing humidity and rain Descending air has less humidity…= deserts Deserts- at 30 degrees o Sonora- Arizona o Sahara-Africa o Gobi- Asia o Atacama-South America o Kalahari- south Africa o Victoria/Simpson- Australia Drawing: Global Climate- be able to draw westerlies, easterlies, rainforests, and deserts on a world map. Practice maps available online At the upper 60 latitude line there is a lot of rainfall. (near seattle) o Air is rising here, sinks around 30 latitude where we have deserts, rises again at equator for rainforests! o Watch out! Sometimes the maps are different than what we are used to, and USA might be on the right side with the ocean in the middle and Africa on the left side. Be careful! o Climate vs. Weather Climate is the fact the desert is normally dry. Weather is if it is raining or not today Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. Winds generally blow from high pressure toward low pressure o Low pressure is rising air=rain o High pressure is descending air=dry o Heat in at the equatorevaporation to 100% humidity condensation (540 cal/g) and rains ! Happens at equator Air keeps moving to deserts which lowers humidity o Clicker Q: Which of these is more likely to lead to rain? Sinking air Rising air- cools at it goes up and can’t hold as much water Air moving toward the pole o Energy out during precipitation is 540 cal/g out to the air and energy in during evaporation is 540 cal/g in from the sun o Enegry transport drawing o Question: how does the planet move most of its heat around? Warm air moving around Warm water moving around Water vapor in the air moving around- Winds drive the ocans Surface currents o Northern hemisphere is to the left. Gulf stream o Southern hemisphere is to the right. Canary current Drawing: wind belts and surface currents o Will be asked to draw and label these o Homework number 3 covers this! o Warm currents take water from near the equator and moves it to the poles o Cold currents do the opposite o This is why the ocean off California is cold and off of Florida is warm o This is also why Seattle’s sea level threat is not as big as New York or Boston o Corotio- warm current o Gulf stream- warm current o Canary- cold current o Brazil current- cold current o Peru current- cold current o West Australia. Leuin- india Q: the large ocean gyres are drive by o the wind- o The temperature o Evaporation Winds push warm water west and cold water east. This matters for El Niño Drawing: west coast vs. east coast Winds/currents keep seawater well mixed and at the 3.5% Surface currents= gyres. Warm Currents transport 10% of heat! Process by which surface currents transport heat o Sun warms water near equator o Wind belts drive currents o Currents run into continents and turn o Warm water carries poleward and releases hear With this is migration of plants and animals