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HIST 101 Week 5 Lecture Notes

by: Hannah Roberts

HIST 101 Week 5 Lecture Notes HIST 101

Marketplace > Great Basin College > History > HIST 101 > HIST 101 Week 5 Lecture Notes
Hannah Roberts

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About this Document

Colonial Crisis and Conflict
U.S. History
Jonathan Foster
Class Notes
history, History101, Foster, american revolution, revolution, #Americanhistory, UnitedStates, EarlyUnitedStatesHistory, Independence




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Roberts on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at Great Basin College taught by Jonathan Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Great Basin College.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Revolution Part 1: Breaking the Ties French and Indian War Aftermath • British had a mass debt • British were already considered overtaxed, so they needed to find a different way to take care of the debt • British blamed colonies for the war and debt • New king in 1760 agrees with the idea of making the colonies pay their far share First Acts • Writs of Assistance (1761) o Permits port collectors to inspect ships and warehouses in colonial ports to look for smuggled goods • Revenue Act (1761) o Prohibit crown appointment custom officers from subcontracting out their duties (they have to do their own jobs) o Authorize British navy to intercept colonial ships that are suspected of trading with French holdings in the Caribbean • Not a lot of public reaction The Sugar Act (1764) • Tax of three pence per gallon on imported molasses • Violators would be prosecuted in Vice-Admiralty Courts • Colonial assemblies will petition for the repeal of this act Colonial Opinion • Colonies are unhappy that the British are cracking down • They believed that the acts were misguided but well intentioned • Believed the acts were in best interest of the Empire • Attitudes hardened about the acts after 1765 The stamp Act (1765) • Hugely unpopular because it directly affected the normal coloniest • Placed tax on court documents, contracts, playing cards, land titles, newspapers, etc. • Viewed as tax on internal commerce • Taxation without representation Virtual Representation • British argued that the colonies do have representation through virtual representation • British idea of virtual representation o Each member of Parliament represents all Englishmen all over the world • Denied requests for direct colonial representation Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Revolution Stamp Act Reaction • Sons of Liberty established o Organizes protests o Headed by Samuel ADAMS o • Stamp Act Congress o Meeting held in New York • Boycott on British goods • Violence o Destruction of property o Tarring and feathering on British officers • Seeking repeal of the Stamp Act o Repealed in March of 1766 Townshend Duties (1767) • Charles Townshend implemented new series of acts • New taxes on importuned paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea • Revenue helped create Board of Customs Commissioners created o Located in Boston o Used to stop smuggling • Vice-Admiralty Courts used once again Townshend Duties Reaction • Sons of Liberty reinvigorated o Letter called for more colonies to join in the reisistance • Colonists question right of Parliament to tax colonies • Mob actions o Tarring and feathering, etc, • 2 boycott against British goods • Repeal o Repeal of the Stamp Act showed that they could get what they wanted through boycotts, etc. o Repealed in April of 1770 except for the tax on tea Boston Massacre • British troops move from Canada to Boston • Resentment towards the British troops being stationed there • Crowd’s taunt the troops outside of buildings • Massacre o March 5, 1770 o Crowd built up in front of officers o Somehow a rifle fires off and the British open fire on the crowd o 11 shot, 5 killed • John Adams agrees to defend the British soldiers on trial o Gets all but 2 acquittals o This unnerved colonies Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Revolution Western Discontent • Proclamation Line of 1763 o Creates a lot of discontent o Limits where people can settle o Created a “line” through the Appalachian mountains • Western Pennsylvania o Increased violence with Natives o Outcry for help from the British o British refuse to help o Vigilantly groups created • Regulators in Carolina over taxation Tensions • Gaspee Affair (1772) o Rhode Islanders take over a ship and brun down the ship out of discontent o British crown upset • Committees of Corresponded formed in 1772 o News spreading organizations o Widespread by 1774 Tea Act • Attempt to save British East India Company from bankruptcy • Tea Act (1773) o Gave British East India Company favorable conditions • American colonies angry o Hurts merchants o Launch boycott on tea o On December 16, 1773, protesters dressed as Natives, boards ships and throw tea into the sea (Boston Tea Party) § King outraged King George III • Resolved to take more active role • Not best advised role • Overly dependent on advisers Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Revolution Coercive Acts (1774) • King George’s reply to the Tea Act • Known as “intolerable Acts” o Port Bill § Shuts down harbor until tea is paid for o Government Act § Annuls Massachusetts charter § Restricts town meetings o Quartering Act § Citizens of Massachusetts must house British soldiers o Administration of Justice Act § Any crown officials accused of crime with not be tried in the colonies Coercive Acts Reaction • Colonists say they are experiencing tyranny at the hands of Parliament • They decide they most form a common response o Results in First Continental Congress First Continental Congress • Held in New York in September of 1774 • Representatives of 12 colonies attend o Georgia abstains • Present Declaration of Rights o Not speaking out against the King o Blaming Parliament rd • 3 Boycott o No importation of British goods o No exportation of goods to England • Dominion Theory of First Empire o Created by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia and James Wilson of Pennsylvania o States that the colonies are subject to the King, however not subject to the rule of Parliament o States that the colonies should have their own Parliament Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Revolution Lexington and Concord • British troops sent to Concord (April 18, 1775) to confinscate a weapon stockpile • Minutemen o Stockpile weapons o Prepare for violence • Lexington o Minutemen meet the British o 8 colonists killed • Concord o British burn supplies o Level Liberty Poles o Continued fighting • Retreat o British forced to retreat o Minutemen line the retreat o 75 British soldiers killed, 200 injured Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Conflict Part II: Revolution Undeclared War • State of undeclared war after the events at Lexington and Concord • Series fighting between colonial forces and the British • Fort Ticonderoga and Lake Champlain (May 1775) o Captured British forces and obtained materials • Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775) o Took place on Breed Hill o 1,000 British killed Second Continental Congress • Convened Philadelphia (May 1775) • Delegates from all 13 colonies • Becomes functioning government of colonies throughout the Revolution • Establishes the Continental Army o Under control of George Washington • Agreed to print currency • Issued the Olive Branch Petition o Last effort to avoid fully breaking away fro the British o King George refused to read the petition Independence • Thomas Paine Published Common Sense in early 1776 o Very significant pamphlet o Argues the natural liberties of the colonies are beige oppressed and that they should be independent from the British o Hugely popular • Virginia Resolution o On June 7, 1776 Richard Henry Lee present the Virginia Resolution to the Contented Congress § Proposed Declaration of Independence § Calling for the split of colonies from the British § New Nation § Approved § Committee established on June 11, 1776 to craft the Declaration of Independence • Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston, Robert Sherman • Expanded Version o Passed July 2 o Signed July 4 Declaration of Independence • Heavily influenced by Enlightenment Philosophy o Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness… • War will follow Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Conflict Revolutionary War • British Army o One of the best armies in the world • British Navy o Best navy in the world • Problems o Cracks in British army “machine” § Low British motel § Not willing to support the war • Long Distance Warfare • Americans o Don’t have a military o Poor discipline o Poorly armed, clothed, and fed • French o French help train hoops • Militia forces o Often relied on o Poor discipline • Long war o Impact a lot of people directly Internal Divisions • Many opposed the war o At least 1/5 supported the British o At least 1/5 disagreed with the Patriots o Loyalists • Spies and Traitors o Benedict Arnold § Famous hero until 1779 when he becomes a turncoat § Traitor for the British Wartime Conditions • Americans suffered greatly o Shortages of necessities o Inflation o Destruction of property § Crop destruction § Residential destruction Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Conflict Early War § String of defeats o Long Island (1776) § Overwhelmed by British § 1500 casualties o Fort Washington, New York § 300 troops captured o Forced to retreat to Pennsylvania o Congress forced to flee to Baltimore • Trenton and Princeton (December 1776) o Victories o Surprised the British Troops • Philadelphia captured (September 1777) o British Commander withdrawer o Victory • Saratoga (September 1777) o Defeat the British o Major victory o Convinced the French to join the war publicly • Valley Forger (Winter of 1777-17780 o Suffered severely o Washington managed to keep the army together French Alliance • Ben Franklin had been trying to have the French come out in alliance since 1776 • Louis XVI pledged alliance openly in Fenway 1778 o Calls for open trade o Calls for French forces o Calls for loans o Calls for the Americans to pledge alliance to the French Winning the War (1778-1781) • American drive back the British in New York City 1778 • Spain enters the war on the side of the Americans • British invade Southern Theatre 1778 o Take Savannah in1778 o Take Charleston in 1780 o Take Camden in 1780 o Colonists defeat British at King’s Mountain in 1780 o Colonists defeat British at Cowpens in 1781 • British stopped after this point Yorktown • Cornwallis’s forces surrounded at Yorktown o No escape on land or at sea • Cornwallis’s surrender October 19, 1781 Lecture Notes: Colonial Crisis and Conflict Treaty of Paris • American independence recognized in March 1781 • Separate peace negations o Originally wanted all of Canada o French originally wanted British control over a majority of the colonies o Americans conduct negations separately and independently • Treaty of Paris ratified September 2, 1783 o War officially over • Terms o Canada will remain British o United States will receive all British colonies o Spain will regain Florida o British will agree to withdraw all forces New Nation • United States with very weak central government o Articles of Confederation • Sense of America identity developing but not that strong o People identify with their local identity


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