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Bio 102 Chapter: 8

by: Avery Watson

Bio 102 Chapter: 8 Disc 102

Avery Watson

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 8. Which is over DNA replication, Binary Fission, and Mitosis.
Inquiry Into Life Human Biology
Carla Beth Carr
Class Notes
Biology, DNA, DNA replication. Heredity., Mitosis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Avery Watson on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Disc 102 at University of Mississippi taught by Carla Beth Carr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Inquiry Into Life Human Biology in Biology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Your cells are rapidly dying and being replaced. Cell division produces a continuous supply of replacement cells Cell division also has a role in reproduction, growth and development A fertilized egg, or zygote, divides by mitosis. The fetus grows and develops into a mature adult (many calls with identical DNA) Each mature individual produces sex cells (gametes) by another form of cell division Sex cells combine at fertilization Cell death is a part of life Apoptosis: cell death, carves out distinctive features  Duck vs. chicken feet - webbing DNA replication precedes cell division For each of the daughter cells from this division to have identical DNA, the cell must first replicate its genome Replication: to copy DNA replication occurs in 3 major steps with 3 major enzymes: figure 8.4 1 Helicase enzymes unwinds DNA 2 Polymerase enzymes create strands that are complementary to the original strands a Based on base pairing: C-G, A-T 2 Ligase enzymes form covalent bonds between adjacent nucleotides IN result: 2 newly formed strands:  1 parental strand (old)  1 daughter strand (new) Binary Fission  Special type of cell division to describe what happens in prokaryotic cell for reproduction  Simple cell division process that bacteria and archaea use to reproduce  DNA of a single parent cell replicates, then the cell divides: 2 genetically identical daughter cells result  Mutations are the only pathway to variation  Asexual because it produces 2 identical daughter cells DNA is Chromatin--> Chromosomes Figure 8.9 DNA + proteins= chromatin  In preparation for division, after replication, chromatin condenses into chromosomes  A chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids (identical DNA molecules)  Centromere joins the 2 sister chromatids Replicated chromosomes condense as eukaryotic cell prepares to divide  DNA replication and protein synthesis occur when DNA is loosely packed  Cell division occurs when DNA has condensed into chromosomes  Before cell division, nucleosomes cluster together into chromatin (figure 8.9)  Discrete chromosomes form o (the highly folded DNA takes up less space and is easier to move than unwound chromatin) Eukaryotic Cell Life Cycle  Interphase: cell does its job and prepares to divide o DNA replicates: consists of 2 sister chromatids o Cell parts increase in number, cell grows  Cell division: 2 steps 1 Mitosis: nucleus divides (chromatids separate into 2 nuclei) -- figure 8.9 a DNA replicated, chromosomes include 2 sister chromatids b Spindle begins to form c Nuclear envelope dissolved; chromosomes free, spindle grabs and moves d Chromosomes are in alignment e Spindle fibers pull apart sister chromatids f New nuclear envelopes enclose DNA 1 Cytokinesis: the cytoplasm divides --- figure 8.11 a 2 daughter cells that are identical b In an animal cell, the first sign of cytokinesis is the cleavage furrow c It deepens as the ring of proteins beneath the cell membrane contracts Cell division is Regulated  Cell reproduction iis regulated by chemical signals ("cell cycle control system") o Genes code for "stop" and "go ahead" proteins  Cells get the "go ahead" after a series of checkpoints  At a failed checkpoint, mistakes may be fixed  Cells that don’t die continue to divide  Uncontrolled cell division can lead to formation of a tumor o Tumor: abnormally growing mass of body cells  benign  Sheath of connective tissue keeps tumor from speading  Not harmful  Ex. Wart and moles  malignant  Can "seed" new tumors throughout the body  Metastasis: spreading to other areas Cancer: Disease of the cell cycle  Results from an accumulation of mutations: o Genes that actually control cell division mutate o Two lines of defense 1. Immune system fund and attacks abnormal cells 2. Tumor suppressor genes are turned on; suppress tumor  If tumor suppressor genes mutate, cells proliferate into a tumor  Genes and the environment both can increase cancer risk--- table 8.1 o Some individuals are predisposed to cancer: a mutated gene is inherited from a parent o Usually there are other contributing factors 1. Exposure to mutagens 2. Lifestyle choice  Smoking  Poor diet  Exercise habits  Arises when cells divide out of control o Cancer treatments 1. Surgery 2. Drugs 3. Chemotherapy 4. Radiation o Tumor cells mutate and divide quickly, often developing resistance to drugs


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