Intro to Research Lecture 1 Week 1
Intro to Research Lecture 1 Week 1
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kim Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Armstrong State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 1 & 2 Why study behavioral research methods? To be good producers and consumers of research. What is the job of a research producer? Act as an empiricist by systematically observing the world Test theories through research and adapt those theories based on resulting data. Use research to examine both basic and applied research. Test why, when and for whom. Make our work public by submitting it to academic journals. Talk to the media about your work. Acting as an empiricist. Empiricism: using evidence from the senses or an instrument that helps assist the senses as the basis for the conclusion. You can literally watch and listen to people (observational research). o An example would be the electronically activates recorders (EAR). You can use surveys, questionnaires. Timers, etc... Test and revise theories with data. Theory: set of statements that describes general principles about how variables relate to another. o An example of a theory: Your phone won’t load your email but your roommates can access hers just fine. What might be happening and how do you figure it out? Hypothesis: a way if stating the specific outcome, the researcher expects to observe if the theory is correct. Data: a set of observations to test your hypothesis. Bad but common scientific practice… HARKING: Hypothesizing After Data IS KNOWN. When you write about research, should you tell a good story or every detail of the research? What makes a good theory? A good theory is supported by data. Evidence accumulates over a period of time using multiple methods. You are often slow to give up a theory (Kuhn’s paradigm shift). A good theory is falsifiable. o Falsifiability: the possibility of collecting data and proving a theory wrong. A good theory is also parsimonious. o Parsimony: “all things being equal,” which means that simple is best. 2 Examine basic and applied questions. Applied research: conducted with a particular problem in mind with the hope of improving things. The data is applied to the problem. Basic research: the goal to enhance the general body of knowledge. Translational research: when you use lessons from basic research to develop and test applications. Ask why, when and for whom. Mediating variables: explaining why A is related to B (cause). Moderating variables: identify when and for whom a is related to B. Talking to the media. Media coverage can come in many forms. You can be… Quoted in newspapers and magazines. Interviewed on television. Write an op-ed piece. Publish a book. Write a blog. What is good about talking to the media? You get… A bigger audience. 3 Help people. People learn what you actually do. What is risky about it? You are… Often misquoted. Often misinterpreted. Often miss the point. Why do we have to do all this? How else are we supposed to learn about human behaviors, thoughts and emotions? What’s wrong with learning from experience? You have no Comparison Group: this allows us to compare what would happen to both groups with and without the thing you are interested in. Your experience usually has Confounds: these are alternative explanations for the same effect. Your experience isn’t sufficiently Probalistic: you can’t take into account enough cases to be sure of the cause and the effect. What’s wrong with using intuition? Biased by good stories. Biased by availability herositic: things that easily come to mind seem more likely. Biased by the tendency to avoid what you don’t like. 4 Biased by confirmatory hypothesis testing: asking questions in a way that you get the answer that you want. Biased by belief. Why can’t we trust an authority figure? You sometimes can, but it can be hard to tell who the authority figure is. 5
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