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The oceans, week 1

by: Elyse Villanueva

The oceans, week 1 OCEA 1 - 01

Elyse Villanueva
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About this Document

These notes cover the origin of the Earth, as well as the origin of water. We also covered isotopes and seismic waves.
The Oceans
Carl Lamborg
Class Notes
the oceans, Geology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elyse Villanueva on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to OCEA 1 - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Carl Lamborg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see The Oceans in Scientific Inquiry at University of California - Santa Cruz.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Oceans(September 22nd) ­20% of protein comes from sea life ­40% of world’s population lives within 100km of the coast. ­The ocean moderates climate. No ocean would make the surface 100 degrees warmer from  human released co2. ­Oil, natural gas, and minerals from ocean are important for us. ­½ of our oxygen comes from the ocean. Oceans(September 25th) ­Latitude is the angle from equatorial plane towards north and south. ­Results in a set of Circles, parallel to the equator. ­The minimum latitude is 0 degrees and the maximum is 90 degrees. ­One degree of latitude= 60 nautical miles. ­The exact distance is defined by the radius of Earth. ­1.2 statute miles( miles we use on our roads)= 1 nautical mile ­measurements in latitude= degrees, minutes, and seconds. ­1 degree= 60 minutes= 3600 seconds ­Longitude is the angle perpendicular to latitude. ­Measured in equatorial plane between an arbitrary reference and desired lines that pass  through both north and south. ­ Set of converging lines running from pole to pole is meridians of longitude. ­ The prime meridian is a reference point. ­ 0 degrees is at the prime meridian in Greenwich, England. ­15 degrees longitude= 1 hour. This is dependant on where you are. ­Earth’s surface is 360 degrees ( measurements do not exceed 180 though) ­ 360 degrees/ 24 hours = 15 degrees/hour ­Projections are different way of showing the 3D world in 2D. ­ The great circle projection is the shortest path on a sphere. ­ Equirectangular projection­ North/south distances are correct but East/west are distorted. ­Mercator projection­ Not equal, distorted in every direction. Perfect for pre­gps navigation.  Distorted enormously north/south. ­ Mollweide projection­ equal area, makes the map bulge. Skews a little off axis to preserve  area. ­The orthographic­ as Earth appears from space. ­The equidistant azimuthal projection­ modern day flat earthers. ( Many problems with this map). ­ Distortions get worse as you move from center. ­ Antarctica is a ring on the outside in this map. ­ Bathymetric map­ looking at Earth from an ocean perspective. ­97.26% of all Earth’s water is in the ocean. ­2.11% is in ice caps and glaciers. ­ Rivers make up a small portion (.0001%) ­ large reservoirs= long residence time ­small reservoirs=short residence time ­ residence time= reservoir size/ flux in or out ­Tau is the symbol that represents residence time. ­Fluxes are in 10^15 kg/year… eg/year (exagram/year) ­ Density= 1g/cm^3 ­(1g/cm^3)(10^6 cm^3/1 cm^3)( 10^9 m^3/km^3) = 10^15g/ km^3 September 28 ­Water is abundant in the universe… more abundant farther from stars. ­planet types: rocky and gaseous ­Condensation theory:condensation of light materials only occur at cool temperatures. ­solar ignition “blows” volatile components away from the sun. ­inner planets are dominated by heavier elements. ­outer planets dominated by gasses. ­We’re on edge of volatile zone. ­Not all water was blown away. ­How was water made on planet? ­Wet magma hypothesis ­water added after solar ignition ­planetesimals delivered water ­held in primordial partially melting Earth ­outgassed after cooling ­Rock=group of minerals ­Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago ­4.6­4.5 bya( billion years ago)= no crust, ocean of magma, start of differentiation between  crust, core, and mantle. ­4.4­3.9 bya= lots of volcanism, gas components  from volcanoes(h20, co2,ch4). ­4.3­4.1 bya= liquid water ­3.9 bya formation of oceans and by 3.8 bya permanent oceans. And dated sedimentary rocks. ­meteors have water.. For the carbonaceous chondrite it could be as much as 10% of its weight. ­Earth is .1% water by weight. ­Early on Earth was being hit by a lot of meteors (“late heavy bombardment”) ­comets are mostly water covered by dust ­rare that a comet would hit Earth but only need a few to bring a lot of water. ­ We need to understand isotopes to understand where water is from ­isotopes have same number of neutrons but weigh differently. ­1H  is deuterium ­ isotopes occupy “same place” in periodic table. ­ common stable oxygen isotopes= o­16 and o­18.These isotopes maintain temperature of  Earth. ­Isotopic ratio of deuterium and hydrogen in water. ­comets are not in agreement with isotopic ratio but some meteorites are in agreement. ­heavier isotopes are less volatile Comets and meteorite D/H ratio show a range.. Some comet distribution is possible. ­D20 is slow because of mass ­H20 is quick because of mass and is more prominent. ­The two basic rock types are basalt sea floor and granite continent ­both are igneous, but chemistry and physical properties(density) are different. ­ granite and basalt are both rich in silica, relatively poor in iron and nickel… compared to  meteorites. ­ Earth’s density= mass/volume ­ Earth’s average density 5.5 3 ­ volume=(4/3(pi)r ) ­ mass is determined by gravity’s action on an object. September 30 ­Earth started out chemically as meteorites(except for the volatile components) ­lithosphere(rigid), asthenosphere(plastic), mesosphere(solid), outer core( liquid), and inner  core(solid) ­we know the facts about Earth’s layers because of seismics ­measure arrival times of seismic waves ­generated by earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and human made explosions ­speed depends on chemistry, density, and physical state(solid, partially molten, and molten) ­first thing a seismograph sees is a p wave(primary wave), followed by s waves (secondary  waves), and then finally surface waves( these waves do damage that you can see) ­p waves: compressional , first to arrive, moves like a slinky, and moves through all states of  matter ­s waves: shear, second to arrive, moves through solids only, moves like taking a rope and  moving it up and down. ­seismic waves act like a CAT or MRI scan of the planet ­refraction… waves bend as a result of moving faster when entering material with higher density ­ s waves can only go through solids, therefore doesn’t go through core. ­shadow zones: zones where p waves and s waves don’t travel. ­p waves:large change of density and retract so when they bend and don’t touch shadow zone ­ s waves don’t go through shadow zones because of liquid areas. ­seismics reveal differentiation  ­the denser things sink to core and lighter minerals go to top ­crust is made of less dense minerals ­core is made of more dense materials and mantle is in between ­during melting phase, differentiation ­the cooling at surface ­core is the thickest part and crust is thinnest ­lithosphere­crust and upper mantle fused together, very rigid ­asthenosphere­deformable region in mantle ­mesosphere­solid, lower mantle ­isostasy­ an equilibrium in which less dense plates float in denser mantle(isostatic equilibrium) ­density and thickness determine elevation. Sea floor basalt more dense than granite..but not as tall or deep ­isostasy­ a thick block in water will have a higher standing in water ­wegener proposed the theory of continental drift in 1912 ­based on coastline shape and fossil records(fossils and coal) and climate(glacial deposits) ­similar or same fossils on either side of continent ­he was ridiculed until the 1950s when new observations further supported the idea( he died in  1930s before he got the recognition) ­complex ocean bathymetry­ shows underwater mountain ranges ­heat flow largest near mid ocean ridges ­history of flipping from normal polarity to reversed polarity ­post ww2 magnetometers showed variations in magnetic fields in oceans ­ ocean crust(largely basalt) also includes magnetite ­”spreading centers” where oceanic crusts are Plates move at the same speed as your fingernails grow ­todays earth is covered by 18 plates


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