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GR 1123 Week 7 Class Notes

by: Juliette R

GR 1123 Week 7 Class Notes GR 1123

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Geography > GR 1123 > GR 1123 Week 7 Class Notes
Juliette R
GPA 3.8

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Class notes from Monday, September 26, Tuesday, September 28, and Friday, September 30.
World Geography
Alexandria Grimes
Class Notes
World Geography
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette R on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Alexandria Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
    GR 1123 World Geography 1  09/26/16    Europe Continued    ● Political Revolutions  ○ Early Europe: monarchs had absolute power, with few given to the people  ■ By the end of the​ ndustrial Revolutio​  Monarchs were on their way out  ■ French Revolution  ​ ended the absolute power of the monarchs in Europe  (late 1700s)  ○ Creation of the ​modern Nation­state  ■ The concept of nationalism (19th century)  ■ Cultural identity for groups of humans  ○ Democracy/Parliamentary Systems:  ■ Rebellion against absolute political power (Monarchy)  ■ Separation between the State and the Church   ● Not really (Church of England, the Vatican)  ● Industrial Revolution (1750­1850)  ○ Not a “sudden event”  ■ Started in the UK, mainly in the East before moving into the US (post Civil  War)  ■ Technical innovations occurred in British Industry  ● Use of ​new materials​ (steel, iron, chemicals)  ● Usage of ​ hermal energy​ to produce mechanical energy  ● Mechanized labor  ​ replaced human and animal labor   ● Production (factories) increased  ● Transportation ​ ail​)  ○ Why was Britain the origin?  ■ Access to raw materials ​from around the world  ■ Textiles, steam power (boats, trains), iron making (furnaces, ships,  stoves, cannons, weapons)  ○ France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia started getting involved in  supplying  raw materials and eventually starting producing on their own  ○ Social inequality:  ■ General Exploitation:  ● Child Labor  ● Long working hours  ● Safety  ● Very low pay  ● Most people didn’t a choice  ○ If they complained, they were replace          StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016     GR 1123 World Geography 2  Wars Changed the Political Map  ● WWI ​“The Great War” “The War to End All Wars” 1914­1918  ○ Axis (Central Powers) vs. Allies (Triple Entente)  ○ Began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  ○ July 1914 ­ November 1918  ○ 9 million people killed in Europe  ○ Western ​Front i​ rance ​ nd the ​eastern ​Fron​ ussia  ○ First war where ​chemical weapons ​ ere used  ○ Trench warfare​:   ■ Military strategy did not match the tech of the time  ○ Results:  ■ Tech grew tremendously a ​ s a result of the Industrial Revolution  ● Tanks, guns, aircraft, communication, submarines  ■ Showed the US as legitimate​ orld power  ● Was neutral at the beginning of the war  ■ Balkans, Hungary, Turkey became free from the​ ttoman Empire  ■ Treaty of Versailles  ● Made Germany pay for the war  ● Fascism grew,​  nationalism or nation­state patriotism grew in  Germany as a result  ● Intended to​ unish​ Germany and​ revent ​ them from ever  gaining military power again  ○ Created problems that led to WWII  ■ The League Of Nations  ● Principal mission was t​ aintain world peace  ● Lacked authority and contro​ ots of issues  ● Was later replaced by th​ nited Nations​ (UN)    09/28/16  ● WWII ​1939­1945  ○ 61 countries i​ nvolved  ○ More than ⅞ of the inhabited area of the world took part  ○ Started September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland  ■ 85 million ​people killed (21 million Russian)  ■ Deadliest conflict in human history  ○ Two Sides  ■ Allied Powers vs. Axis powers  ○ Blitzkrieg​: “​lightning war​”  ○ Holocaust:  ■ Camps for prisoners  ■ Worked in factories and agriculture while in camps  ■ As war progressed, conditions worsened      StudySoup Juliette Reid  Fall 2016     GR 1123 World Geography 3  ○ Aftermath:  ■ Decolonization of land  ● India, Asia, African countries  ■ New countries were drawn  ● Israel​ created  ■ Cold War and Nuclear race  ■ The UN, European Union, IMF and NATO were formed  ● The United Nations  ○ Product of WWII (replaced the League of Nations)  ○ Started with 51 states, today has 193 nations  ○ Major goal was/is t​ void WWIII  ■ Human rights  ■ Diplomacy over conflict  ■ Avoid genocide  ● The European Union  ​ (EU)  ○ Major goal: to rebuild Europ​ conomically  ■ Reduce trade tariffs between European countries  ○ Also a product of WWII  ■ Produced by ​ urope​, not the US  ○ US was involved in helping get on its fe​ arshall Pla​   ■ $13 billion to help rebuild both physical, economic, and political sectors  ■ Keep Communism at bay  ○ Supranationalism: a voluntary association in economic, political, and cultural  spheres of 3 or more nations who are willing to give over their sovereignty for  mutual benefit  ○ Today: ​28 countrie​ are in the EU  ○ Capital located i​ russels​  Belgium  09/30/16  ○ Current Day EU  ■ Allows citizens to move between countries for work without passports  ■ Created a ​ entral ban​ and currency 1999  ● Euro is more valuable than the American Dollar (1 Euro is about  $1.15)  ● Greek Epsilon​ (symbol for the cradle of humanit​   ■ Helped growth in​ nfrastructur​  flow of money, labor, and goods  ■ Taxes collected in rich countries are used for non­prosperous ones  ○ BREXIT  ■ British separation from the EU caused by Immigration fear (job loss) and  fear that Brussels had too much control over British government  ■ Major players  ● Davis Cameron (former Prime Minister), Theresa May (current  Prime Minister), Boris Johnson (former London mayor)  ■ Now what?    StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016     GR 1123 World Geography 4  ● What will Britain still be able to access from the EU  ● Figure out the rights of EU citizens living in England  ● Figure out rights of English citizens living in EU nations  ● Northern Ireland and Scottish membership in the EU  ● NATO N​orth ​A​merica​ ​reaty ​O​rganization  ○ Created in 1949 to stabilize Europe after WWII   ○ Established by the ​U​ NOT EUROPE)  ○ More connected with​ ecurit​ than ​economics  ○ Helped ​Europe​ militarily agains​ oviet Union  ○ Today  ■ More focused with ​terrorism​,​ weapons of mass destructio​  an​ yber  security  ■ Now focused ​globally​  not just Europe  ● IMF I​nternational ​M​one​ F​und  ○ Major goals:  ■ Secure financial stability  ■ Grow international trade and reduce poverty  ■ Includes 168 countries  ○ Established to help rebui​ conomies after WWII ​and help avoid anothe​ reat  Depression  ○ Provides:  ■ Guidance to central banks and analysis of economic trends globally  ■ Aid to help fight poverty    Countries of Europe  ● GERMANY  ○ 82 million people  ○ Initially made up of several tribes, royal families   ■ Unified in the late 1800s early 1900s  ○ Divided after WWII  ■ West Germany: part of Europe  ■ East Germany: USSR  ○ Contains 16 states today   ○ Highly urbanized   ■ 89% or population  ○ A leader in Europe  ■ manufacturing/ economic stability  ■ Largest economy of Europe  ■ Autobahn  ​ interstate system  ● FRANCE  ○ 64 million people   ○ Oldest ​state​ in Europe  ○ Urban    StudySoup Juliette Reid  Fall 2016 ​     GR 1123 World Geography 6  ○ Kosovo ​(refugees)  ● UKRAINE  ○ Recent events:  ■ Major divisions after Cold War  ■ Country divided politically  ● East: Pro Russia  ● West: Pro Europe  ■ Russia needs access to the ocean and resources  ● Military and economic factor  ● Fight for control of Crimea    StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016


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