GR 1123 Week 7 Class Notes
GR 1123 Week 7 Class Notes GR 1123
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette R on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Alexandria Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
GR 1123 World Geography 1 09/26/16 Europe Continued ● Political Revolutions ○ Early Europe: monarchs had absolute power, with few given to the people ■ By the end of the ndustrial Revolutio Monarchs were on their way out ■ French Revolution ended the absolute power of the monarchs in Europe (late 1700s) ○ Creation of the modern Nationstate ■ The concept of nationalism (19th century) ■ Cultural identity for groups of humans ○ Democracy/Parliamentary Systems: ■ Rebellion against absolute political power (Monarchy) ■ Separation between the State and the Church ● Not really (Church of England, the Vatican) ● Industrial Revolution (17501850) ○ Not a “sudden event” ■ Started in the UK, mainly in the East before moving into the US (post Civil War) ■ Technical innovations occurred in British Industry ● Use of new materials (steel, iron, chemicals) ● Usage of hermal energy to produce mechanical energy ● Mechanized labor replaced human and animal labor ● Production (factories) increased ● Transportation ail) ○ Why was Britain the origin? ■ Access to raw materials from around the world ■ Textiles, steam power (boats, trains), iron making (furnaces, ships, stoves, cannons, weapons) ○ France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia started getting involved in supplying raw materials and eventually starting producing on their own ○ Social inequality: ■ General Exploitation: ● Child Labor ● Long working hours ● Safety ● Very low pay ● Most people didn’t a choice ○ If they complained, they were replace StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123 World Geography 2 Wars Changed the Political Map ● WWI “The Great War” “The War to End All Wars” 19141918 ○ Axis (Central Powers) vs. Allies (Triple Entente) ○ Began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand ○ July 1914 November 1918 ○ 9 million people killed in Europe ○ Western Front i rance nd the eastern Fron ussia ○ First war where chemical weapons ere used ○ Trench warfare: ■ Military strategy did not match the tech of the time ○ Results: ■ Tech grew tremendously a s a result of the Industrial Revolution ● Tanks, guns, aircraft, communication, submarines ■ Showed the US as legitimate orld power ● Was neutral at the beginning of the war ■ Balkans, Hungary, Turkey became free from the ttoman Empire ■ Treaty of Versailles ● Made Germany pay for the war ● Fascism grew, nationalism or nationstate patriotism grew in Germany as a result ● Intended to unish Germany and revent them from ever gaining military power again ○ Created problems that led to WWII ■ The League Of Nations ● Principal mission was t aintain world peace ● Lacked authority and contro ots of issues ● Was later replaced by th nited Nations (UN) 09/28/16 ● WWII 19391945 ○ 61 countries i nvolved ○ More than ⅞ of the inhabited area of the world took part ○ Started September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland ■ 85 million people killed (21 million Russian) ■ Deadliest conflict in human history ○ Two Sides ■ Allied Powers vs. Axis powers ○ Blitzkrieg: “lightning war” ○ Holocaust: ■ Camps for prisoners ■ Worked in factories and agriculture while in camps ■ As war progressed, conditions worsened StudySoup Juliette Reid Fall 2016 GR 1123 World Geography 3 ○ Aftermath: ■ Decolonization of land ● India, Asia, African countries ■ New countries were drawn ● Israel created ■ Cold War and Nuclear race ■ The UN, European Union, IMF and NATO were formed ● The United Nations ○ Product of WWII (replaced the League of Nations) ○ Started with 51 states, today has 193 nations ○ Major goal was/is t void WWIII ■ Human rights ■ Diplomacy over conflict ■ Avoid genocide ● The European Union (EU) ○ Major goal: to rebuild Europ conomically ■ Reduce trade tariffs between European countries ○ Also a product of WWII ■ Produced by urope, not the US ○ US was involved in helping get on its fe arshall Pla ■ $13 billion to help rebuild both physical, economic, and political sectors ■ Keep Communism at bay ○ Supranationalism: a voluntary association in economic, political, and cultural spheres of 3 or more nations who are willing to give over their sovereignty for mutual benefit ○ Today: 28 countrie are in the EU ○ Capital located i russels Belgium 09/30/16 ○ Current Day EU ■ Allows citizens to move between countries for work without passports ■ Created a entral ban and currency 1999 ● Euro is more valuable than the American Dollar (1 Euro is about $1.15) ● Greek Epsilon (symbol for the cradle of humanit ■ Helped growth in nfrastructur flow of money, labor, and goods ■ Taxes collected in rich countries are used for nonprosperous ones ○ BREXIT ■ British separation from the EU caused by Immigration fear (job loss) and fear that Brussels had too much control over British government ■ Major players ● Davis Cameron (former Prime Minister), Theresa May (current Prime Minister), Boris Johnson (former London mayor) ■ Now what? StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 GR 1123 World Geography 4 ● What will Britain still be able to access from the EU ● Figure out the rights of EU citizens living in England ● Figure out rights of English citizens living in EU nations ● Northern Ireland and Scottish membership in the EU ● NATO North America reaty Organization ○ Created in 1949 to stabilize Europe after WWII ○ Established by the U NOT EUROPE) ○ More connected with ecurit than economics ○ Helped Europe militarily agains oviet Union ○ Today ■ More focused with terrorism, weapons of mass destructio an yber security ■ Now focused globally not just Europe ● IMF International Mone Fund ○ Major goals: ■ Secure financial stability ■ Grow international trade and reduce poverty ■ Includes 168 countries ○ Established to help rebui conomies after WWII and help avoid anothe reat Depression ○ Provides: ■ Guidance to central banks and analysis of economic trends globally ■ Aid to help fight poverty Countries of Europe ● GERMANY ○ 82 million people ○ Initially made up of several tribes, royal families ■ Unified in the late 1800s early 1900s ○ Divided after WWII ■ West Germany: part of Europe ■ East Germany: USSR ○ Contains 16 states today ○ Highly urbanized ■ 89% or population ○ A leader in Europe ■ manufacturing/ economic stability ■ Largest economy of Europe ■ Autobahn interstate system ● FRANCE ○ 64 million people ○ Oldest state in Europe ○ Urban StudySoup Juliette Reid Fall 2016 GR 1123 World Geography 6 ○ Kosovo (refugees) ● UKRAINE ○ Recent events: ■ Major divisions after Cold War ■ Country divided politically ● East: Pro Russia ● West: Pro Europe ■ Russia needs access to the ocean and resources ● Military and economic factor ● Fight for control of Crimea StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016
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