Chemistry 1210 Notes, Chapter 4
Chemistry 1210 Notes, Chapter 4 CHEM 1210
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Campbell on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1210 at Ohio State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 4 Notes: Reactions in Aqueous Solution 9/12/16 I. General Properties of Aqueous Solutions a. Homogenous mixture; solution b. 2 components: solvent and solute c. dissolution- process of dissolving d. Nonelectrolytes i. dissolve in molecular form ii. do NOT conduct electricity iii. EX: pure water e. Electrolytes i. Aqueous solution of substance conducts electricity due to the ions present in the solution ii. Dissociation- ionic compounds (solutes) dissolve as ions 1. Strong electrolytes dissociate completely iii. Ionization- polar covalent molecule forms ions as it dissolves 1. Not all polar covalent molecules 2. Strong acids 3. Weak electrolytes a. Partial ionization b. Weakly conduct electricity c. Include weak acids and bases II. Precipitation Reactions a. Precipitate- an insoluble product that is formed in a chemical reaction b. Solubility differs for different substances c. Exchange reactions/ Metathesis/ Double Replacement Reactions i. Cations and anions change partners from reactants to form products ii. Reaction has to have a driving force 1. Precipitate/gas/weak or nonelectrolyte formation iii. Precipitation reactions 1. Molecular equation a. all substances written as molecules 2. Ionic equation a. Soluble ionic substances written as individual ions b. Insoluble ionic substances written as formula c. Strong electrolytes written as individual ions d. Weak/nonelectrolytes written as formula 3. Net ionic equation a. Eliminate spectator ions III. Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions a. Acids i. Proton donors ii. Ionize in water to form H+ iii. Strong acids (ionize completely) 1. HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4 iv. Weak acids 1. Weak electrolytes 2. Any acid that is not strong b. Bases i. Accept proto-s ii. Produce OH iii. Strong bases 1. Hydroxides and oxides of groups 1A and 2A (except Be, Mg) c. Neutralization i. Forms weak or nonelectrolytes ii. Will go to completion if contains strong acid/base iii. Driving force = formation of water iv. Gas formation 1. Carbonates and bicarbonates, Sulfites and bisulfites, sulfides IV. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions a. Loss of an electron of one element results in another element gaining that elctron b. Oxidation = losing an electron c. Reduction = gaining an electron d. Oxidizing agent = substance being reduced e. Reduction agent = substance being oxidized f. Oxidation numbers- the charge that an atom would have if the electrons in compounds were assigned a certain way i. Elements = 0 ii. The sum of all of the oxidation numbers in a neutral compound = 0 iii. Ox. numbers cant be more positive or more negative than the group number g. Combination reactions h. Decomposition reactions i. Combustion reactions i. Produce CO2 and H2O j. Displacement reactions i. Single replacement- one element replaces another ii. The Activity Series 1. How we know if a reaction is going to occur or not V. Concentration of Solutions a. Molarity = moles of solute/ Liters of solution b. Dilution i. M1V1 = M2V2 VI. Solution Stoichiometry a. Used to determine the molarity of ions in a solution b. Titrations i. Determines the concentration of an unknown substance by adding to it a measured volume of solution of a known concentration ii. Equivalence point- point where equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted iii. End point- point where the indicator changes color
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