CHEM131 Week Five
CHEM131 Week Five CHEM131
Popular in Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maya Silver-Isenstadt on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM131 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by John Ondov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter Five Compounds→ When two or more elements combine, the new substance has different properties than the elements that formed the compound. Covalent Bond→ Formed between two nonmetals. Electrons are S HARED instead of transferred. Ionic Bond→ Bond between metal and nonmetal. Solid state is a lattice of alternating cations and anions. Chemical Formula→ Indicates the number of atoms in each molecule Ex) CO 2 Emp irical Formula → Gives relative number of atoms in a molecule St ructural Formula→ Uses lines to show covalent bonds L wis Dot Structures→ The dots represent the valence electron’s. Shows depiction of the octet rule. Nomenclature→ Naming system of compounds and molecules. The sum of (+) charges and (-) 3+ 2− charges must ALWAYS balance. Ex) Al and O = Al O 2 3 Examples 1) Ionic compound. Name cation metal + base name of anion +ide a) KCL = Potassium chloride b) CaO = Calcium oxide 2) Naming Ionic compound with a metal that has more than one type of Cation 2+ a) Fe = Iron (II) b) CrBr =3Chromium (III) bromide 3) Naming polyatomic Ions. The charge refers to the charge of the whole ion, not each individual part. a) FeSO = 4ron (II) sulfate b) NH NO4= Am3onium Nitrate 4) Oxy Anions are anions that contain oxygen and another element. When oxygen is more than the other element then ending = ate, when it is less, then = ite, if there are more that 2 ions = hypo is less than, per = more than. a) ClO- = hypochlorite b) ClO2= chlorite c) ClO3= chlorate d) ClO4 = perchlorate 5) Naming hydrated ionic compounds (hydrates) a) MgSO4 * 7H20= magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Molar Mass → [#atoms of first element][amu of first element]+[#atoms second element][amu second element]+...etc. To find # molecules in mass given→ gCO2→ mol CO2→ # molecules Composition of Compounds → mass % composition = element’s % of compound’s mass Equation = mass element X in one mole of compound/mass of 1 mol of compound (*100%) ● To calculate mass of element from given mass of compound. Mass of element over mass of molecule. ● *Chemical formula gives relationship between mols not mass. Mass of element in given mass of a compound → mass compound to moles compound to moles element to mass element. To determine chemical formula from data. 1) Find mol of each element from given molecule. Divide by smallest subscript. Round to closest integer. 2) Molecular Formula = empirical formula *n (1,2,3…) a) N = molar mass/ empirical formula molar mass Organic Compounds 1) Organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are simplest.