PSY 320 Week 6 Notes
PSY 320 Week 6 Notes PSY 320
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
9/26/16 Chapter 6 Somatic Symptoms Disorders - Soma - Body ● Preoccupation with health and/or body appearance and functioning ● No identifiable medical condition - Types of DSM-V Somatoform Disorders ● Illness anxiety disorder ● Somatic symptoms disorder ● Conversion disorder ● Fictitious disorder - Illness Anxiety Disorder ● Worry that they have or will develop a serious illness ○ No serious physical symptoms ○ Physical complaints ■ Very alarmed and concerned ■ Usually seek medical care, or sometimes avoid the doctor because they don’t want to be told it’s all in their head ○ Not faking it, they believe it so much that they really do feel the pain ● Theories of Somatic Symptom Disorder and Illness Anxiety disorder ○ Cognitive factors ■ Dysfunctions beliefs about illness - might think of being sick as a beneficial thing (like getting special attention when you’re sick) ■ Increased attention to physical change (my hand fell asleep) ■ Catastrophize symptoms (my hand is tingling, maybe I have a tumor) ● Treatment of Somatic Symptoms Disorder and Illness Anxiety disorder ○ Psychodynamic therapies ■ Provide insight into emotions that link to physical symptoms ○ Behavioral therapies ■ Learn and eliminate reinforcements ○ Cognitive therapies ■ Challenge physical symptoms to avoid catastrophizing them ○ Belief systems ■ Engage in therapy to work on the physical symptoms - Conversion disorder ● Lose neurologic functioning in a certain body part ○ Ex: Glove anesthesia - lose feeling to part of your hand, like wearing a glove that wiped out physical sensation ● Theories of Conversion Disorder ○ Freudian ■ Transfer of psychic energy attached to repressed emotions ■ Primary gain - reduced anxiety because attention is shifted from sexual frustration to physical ailment ■ Secondary gain - attention ○ Behavioral ■ Alleviates stress by removing individual from the environment (If you have a lot of stress about medical school and then you wake up and can’t feel your hand then you can’t do school and have to focus on something else for a little while) ■ La belle indifference - unconcerned by loss ● Therapy for Conversion Disorder ○ Psychoanalytic ■ Express painful emotions or memories linked to symptoms ○ Behavioral ■ Relieve anxiety centered on the initial trauma (stressor) ■ Reducing benefits (reinforcing sickness) - Fictitious Disorder ● Munchausen's syndrome ○ Deliberately faking symptoms of an illness to gain medical attention ■ Don’t just fake it, but do things to actually make themselves sick ○ Munchausen’s syndrome by proxy ■ Falsifying illness in another person (primary caregiver making their child or elderly people sick on purpose) ○ Malingering - faking a symptom or a disorder in order to avoid an unwanted situation or to gain something other than attent his is not a disorder) ■ Ex: faking a problem in order to get out of military service Dissociative Disorders - Derealization - loss of sense of the reality of the external world - Depersonalization - loss of sense of own reality - 4 types ● Depersonalization disorder ● Dissociative amnesia ● Dissociative fugue ● Dissociative Identity disorder - Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality) ● Many personalities (alters) coexist in one body ○ Personalities or fragments are dissociated - alters can be different ages, races, genders, etc. ● Switch personalities - alters created because they are lacking other coping strategies ● Auditory hallucinations (from inside heads) ● 97% severe child abuse ● Simulated by malingers - sometimes people fake it ○ Eager to demonstrate symptoms ● Treatment ○ Integrate all alters into one cohort ○ Rebuild capacity to trust healthy relationships ○ Neutralize cues that activated switch to alters ○ Confront traumas - Dissociative Amnesia ● Blocking out of critical personal information ● Usually of a traumatic or stressful nature ● Not caused by physical or medical reasons ● Localized amnesia ○ No memory of specific events (usually traumatic) ○ Loss localized to specific window of time ● Selective amnesia ○ Can recall only small parts of events from a defined period ■ More specialized than localized amnesia - don’t lose the whole chunk of time, just bits of it ● Generalized amnesia ○ Amnesia encompasses entire life ○ Distinct from organic caused amnesia (caused by brain damage etc.), dissociative generalized amnesia is caused by trauma ● Systematized amnesia ○ Loss of memory for a specific category of information ■ Ex: missing all memories about a specific family member due to trauma - Dissociative Fugue (DMS V) ● Sudden unexpected travel away from home ● Inability to recall past ○ Confusion about personal identity or assumes new identity ● Life Stressor usual antecedent ○ Wars, disasters, emotional stress, heavy alcohol abuse, medical causes-epilepsy, head trauma ● Spontaneous, rapid recovery ● Can last months, brief if due to medical cause ● Signs that this is not malingering - when they remember their old life and try to go back to it ● Fugue state is fairly rare, recurrences are rare (might be sign of malingering if it happens a lot) - Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder ● Detachment from mental processes or body (outside observer) ○ Can be induced by some medications - more emotionally distressing ○ Other causes - more truly disconnected, sort of don’t care ● Causes - Significant stressor, sleep deprivation or drugs ● Diagnosis - episodes frequent and distressing and interfere with the ability to function ○ Often history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse Mood Disorder & Suicide - Anhedonia - lost interest in life - Changes in appetite, sleep, and activity ● Typically sleep more ● Typically less active ● Appetite can go either way - Psychomotor retardation or agitation - Disturbed reality ● Negative affective state ● Some have delusions and hallucinations - Table 7.2 - Subtypes of Major depressive episodes in textbook 9/30/16 - Diagnosing Depressive Disorders ● Major Depressive Disorder ○ Depressive symptoms two + weeks ○ Major depressive disorder, single episode ○ Major depressive disorder, recurrent episodes ● Persistent depressive disorder ○ Depressed mood for at least two years ● Premenstrual dysphoric disorder ○ Increase distress during the premenstrual phase ○ Not as common as people think ● Prevalence and course of depressive disorders ○ High in young adults ○ Low over age 65 ■ Difficult to diagnose ● less willing to report symptoms because in their time it wasn’t okay to talk about ● Serious medical illness ● History of depression more likely to die young ○ Low among children ○ Women report more depressive symptoms ○ Long-lasting and recurrent problems ○ Recover with treatment - Criteria for Manic Episodes ● Period of elevated, or irritable mood- excess energy ● Inflated self-esteem ● Decreased sleep ● Racing thoughts ● Distracted ● Goal directed activity ● Excessive behavior - Criteria for Bipolar I and Bipolar II Disorders ● Bipolar I disorder ○ Depression ○ Mania ● Bipolar II disorder ○ Severe depression ○ Hypomania - mania with less severe symptoms ● Cyclothymic disorder - less severe, but more chronic bipolar condition - Symptoms of Mania ● Rapid cycling - 4+ episodes within 1 year ○ 1 cycle is the start of depression to the end of mania ○ Typically longer periods of depression than mania - Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder ● Temper outbursts out of proportion to situation ● Inconsistent with developmental level (kids and teenagers react more extremely than adults because it is part of their developmental process) - Creativity and Mood Disorders ● Mania benefits certain settings ● Writers, artists, and composers have a high prevalence of mania and depression ● Mood disorders substantially impair thinking and productivity - Theories of depression ● Biological theories of depression ○ Neurotransmitter theories - dysregulation of neurotransmitters and receptors ■ Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin ○ Neuroendocrine factors ■ Hormonal dysregulation ● Psychological/Behavioral theories ○ Stress reduces positive reinforcers and lead to depression ○ Learned helplessness theory - Uncontrollable negative event is most likely to lead to depression ■ If people are unable to handle/get away from negative thing they eventually give in ● Cognitive theories ○ Negative cognitive triad - negative views of self, world, future ○ Reformed learned helplessness theory - cognitive factors influence helplessness and become depressed following a negative event ■ Cognitive processes create negative outlook and make people think what is the point even if they could have overcome negative event ○ Ruminative response style - thinking as a contributor to depression, dwell on negative aspects and thinking
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