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CMST 100 Large Lecture and Book Notes, Week 6

by: Anne Miller

CMST 100 Large Lecture and Book Notes, Week 6 CMST 100

Marketplace > Minnesota State University - Mankato > Communication > CMST 100 > CMST 100 Large Lecture and Book Notes Week 6
Anne Miller
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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About this Document

These notes are from the large lecture and book which will most likely be on the test.
Dr. Laura Jacobi
Class Notes
Advocating, decision making, Leadership





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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Miller on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 100 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Laura Jacobi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION in Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Large Lecture Notes Week 6 Advocating Effectively: Decision-Making & Leadership  Advocating examples: o Asking boss for a raise and why you should get a promotion o Interviews o Standing up for your beliefs  Leadership Styles: o Authoritarian/Autocratic  Has to be in control o Laissez-faire  Hands off o Democratic  Make decisions together and invites participation  Forms of Power: o Reward  Promotion, give incentives, get days off  Short term Compliance  Authoritarian uses o Coercive  Threats, no allowance given  Short term Compliance  Authoritarian uses o Legitimate  Police Officer or Parent over child  Short term Compliance  Authoritarian uses o Referent  They are empowered and trusted  Martin Luther King Jr.  Long term Compliance o Expert  Know a lot about certain things, give choices  Long term Compliance  Supportive vs Defensive Communication Theory o Supportive  Others responded well o Defensive  Others were defensive back  Authoritarian uses o Take into account how you would want to be treated, respect  Evaluation vs Description o Descriptive  Democratic o Evaluation  Authoritarian o Watch tone of voice  Control vs Problem-orientation o Problem-orientation Large Lecture Notes Week 6  Democratic  Strategy vs Spontaneity o Culture is key here o Spontaneity  In individualistic cultures its fine, but in collectivistic ones it’s really not  Neutrality vs Empathy o Neutrality  Laissez-faire leaders  Certainty vs Provisionalism o Provisionalism  You want feedback and communication  Gibbs Communication Climate Theory o Communication is a people process not a language process  Platinum Rule o Do unto others the way they would themselves Chapter 8: Table 8.2 and 8.3 Six Types of Confirming Messages  Descriptive: Communicate clearly and specifically without judgement  Inquiry Orientation: Invite others to work together to solve or understand problems  Spontaneity: Unplanned messages that are free of hidden motives  Empathy: Express understanding of another’s thoughts or feelings  Equality: Seeking others views and expressing value for those ideas  Provisional: Communicate points of view but also invite others views Six Types of Disconfirming Messages  Evaluative: Communicating judgements of right or wrong and good or bad  Control: Forcing ideas on to others and making them agree  Strategy: The person speaking is trying to lead others behaviors  Neutrality: Imply unimportance or no interest in others  Superiority: Imply the speaker is higher up than their listeners  Certainty: Only the speakers ideas are true Chapter 10: Decision Making and Leadership Groups Generate Ideas through Various Methods  Groups can Brainstorm  Brainstorming – Ideas are put together before being debated  Four general rules o Focus on quantity o Don’t criticize o Encourage creativity o Piggyback (combine ideas)  Groups can use the Nominal Group Technique  Nominal group technique – Group members create ideas silently, then combine them as a group  Groups can Ideawrite  Ideawriting – Members add 3-4 ideas, then comment on others ideas; then respond to comments on their ideas and create a list worth consideration Groups Make Decisions in Many Ways  Some Decide by Unanimous Consensus  Unanimous consensus – Undisputed support for a decision  Can end in a stalemate o Stalemate – Opinions are highly divided so a consensus is impossible  Must watch out to not achieve false consensus o False consensus – Group members agree to the unanimous decision, but really don’t agree  Some Decide by Majority Rule  Majority rule – Follows will of the group majority  Some Decide by Minority Rule  Minority rule – Small number of people decide for the whole group  Some Decide by Expert Opinion  Expert opinion – Individual(s) with expertise does the decision making for the group  Some Decide by Authority Rule  Authority rule – Group leader makes the decision  Choice of Method Depends on Various Factors  Importance of the decision  Does it require expert knowledge  How quick does the decision need to be made Cultural Context Affects Decision Making  Individualism Affects Decision Making  Taught to mainly concern themselves first  Collectivism cultures taught to concern others first  Power Distance Affects Decision Making  High power = authority rule or expert opinion  Low power = majority rule  Time Orientation Affects Decision Making  Monochronic = majority, minority, and authority rule  Polychronic = unanimous concensus Leaders Often Share Specific Traits  Traits – Characteristics a person has that aren’t easily changeable  Physical Traits  Physical traits – physical attributes  Sex, height, and appearance can influence who will become leaders  Psychosocial Traits  Psychosocial traits – Personality characteristics and relating to others  Self-esteem, self-monitoring, and outgoing influence leadership qualities  Extroversion – People who are outgoing  Introversion – People who are shy  Communication apprehension – Fear and anxiety about communication with others Leaders Enact Distinct Styles  Some are Democratic  Democratic style – Every group member has the opportunity to participate in the decision making  Some are Autocratic  Autocratic style – Leader takes action on the groups behalf  Some are Laissez-faire  Laissez-faire style – Leader lets the group make the decisions Leaders Exercise Many Forms of Power  Exercise Reward Power  Reward power – Person is rewarded for doing what the leader said  Exercise Coercive Power  Coercive power – Comes from being able to punish  Exercise Referent Power  Referent power – Derives from leader attraction  Exercise Legitimate Power  Legitimate power – The leaders position and status allows them to make requests which others must comply  Exercise Expert Power  Expert power – Having expertise in a certain area  Exercise Informational Power  Informational power – Ability to withhold/control access to information


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