CMST 100 Large Lecture and Book Notes, Week 6
CMST 100 Large Lecture and Book Notes, Week 6 CMST 100
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Miller on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 100 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Laura Jacobi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION in Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Large Lecture Notes Week 6 Advocating Effectively: Decision-Making & Leadership Advocating examples: o Asking boss for a raise and why you should get a promotion o Interviews o Standing up for your beliefs Leadership Styles: o Authoritarian/Autocratic Has to be in control o Laissez-faire Hands off o Democratic Make decisions together and invites participation Forms of Power: o Reward Promotion, give incentives, get days off Short term Compliance Authoritarian uses o Coercive Threats, no allowance given Short term Compliance Authoritarian uses o Legitimate Police Officer or Parent over child Short term Compliance Authoritarian uses o Referent They are empowered and trusted Martin Luther King Jr. Long term Compliance o Expert Know a lot about certain things, give choices Long term Compliance Supportive vs Defensive Communication Theory o Supportive Others responded well o Defensive Others were defensive back Authoritarian uses o Take into account how you would want to be treated, respect Evaluation vs Description o Descriptive Democratic o Evaluation Authoritarian o Watch tone of voice Control vs Problem-orientation o Problem-orientation Large Lecture Notes Week 6 Democratic Strategy vs Spontaneity o Culture is key here o Spontaneity In individualistic cultures its fine, but in collectivistic ones it’s really not Neutrality vs Empathy o Neutrality Laissez-faire leaders Certainty vs Provisionalism o Provisionalism You want feedback and communication Gibbs Communication Climate Theory o Communication is a people process not a language process Platinum Rule o Do unto others the way they would themselves Chapter 8: Table 8.2 and 8.3 Six Types of Confirming Messages Descriptive: Communicate clearly and specifically without judgement Inquiry Orientation: Invite others to work together to solve or understand problems Spontaneity: Unplanned messages that are free of hidden motives Empathy: Express understanding of another’s thoughts or feelings Equality: Seeking others views and expressing value for those ideas Provisional: Communicate points of view but also invite others views Six Types of Disconfirming Messages Evaluative: Communicating judgements of right or wrong and good or bad Control: Forcing ideas on to others and making them agree Strategy: The person speaking is trying to lead others behaviors Neutrality: Imply unimportance or no interest in others Superiority: Imply the speaker is higher up than their listeners Certainty: Only the speakers ideas are true Chapter 10: Decision Making and Leadership Groups Generate Ideas through Various Methods Groups can Brainstorm Brainstorming – Ideas are put together before being debated Four general rules o Focus on quantity o Don’t criticize o Encourage creativity o Piggyback (combine ideas) Groups can use the Nominal Group Technique Nominal group technique – Group members create ideas silently, then combine them as a group Groups can Ideawrite Ideawriting – Members add 3-4 ideas, then comment on others ideas; then respond to comments on their ideas and create a list worth consideration Groups Make Decisions in Many Ways Some Decide by Unanimous Consensus Unanimous consensus – Undisputed support for a decision Can end in a stalemate o Stalemate – Opinions are highly divided so a consensus is impossible Must watch out to not achieve false consensus o False consensus – Group members agree to the unanimous decision, but really don’t agree Some Decide by Majority Rule Majority rule – Follows will of the group majority Some Decide by Minority Rule Minority rule – Small number of people decide for the whole group Some Decide by Expert Opinion Expert opinion – Individual(s) with expertise does the decision making for the group Some Decide by Authority Rule Authority rule – Group leader makes the decision Choice of Method Depends on Various Factors Importance of the decision Does it require expert knowledge How quick does the decision need to be made Cultural Context Affects Decision Making Individualism Affects Decision Making Taught to mainly concern themselves first Collectivism cultures taught to concern others first Power Distance Affects Decision Making High power = authority rule or expert opinion Low power = majority rule Time Orientation Affects Decision Making Monochronic = majority, minority, and authority rule Polychronic = unanimous concensus Leaders Often Share Specific Traits Traits – Characteristics a person has that aren’t easily changeable Physical Traits Physical traits – physical attributes Sex, height, and appearance can influence who will become leaders Psychosocial Traits Psychosocial traits – Personality characteristics and relating to others Self-esteem, self-monitoring, and outgoing influence leadership qualities Extroversion – People who are outgoing Introversion – People who are shy Communication apprehension – Fear and anxiety about communication with others Leaders Enact Distinct Styles Some are Democratic Democratic style – Every group member has the opportunity to participate in the decision making Some are Autocratic Autocratic style – Leader takes action on the groups behalf Some are Laissez-faire Laissez-faire style – Leader lets the group make the decisions Leaders Exercise Many Forms of Power Exercise Reward Power Reward power – Person is rewarded for doing what the leader said Exercise Coercive Power Coercive power – Comes from being able to punish Exercise Referent Power Referent power – Derives from leader attraction Exercise Legitimate Power Legitimate power – The leaders position and status allows them to make requests which others must comply Exercise Expert Power Expert power – Having expertise in a certain area Exercise Informational Power Informational power – Ability to withhold/control access to information
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