Popular in Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by zoebitsie Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Julie Feldman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Science What is science? Asking questions/finding answers Way of looking at the world Not defined by any specific topic Characteristics of Science Systematic Empiricism o Utilizing observation and experience in a way that provides a better understanding of the world around us o Ex: Clever Hans, a horse that was believed to know how to solve math equations, further observation concluded that he was simply taking visual cues from his owner (1907) Public Knowledge o Unbiased o Objective Testable Problems o Problems that are “falsifiable” Set of Attitudes o Curiosity, interest, skepticism Scientific Method 1. Theory o Organizes observations and predicts events/behaviors o A good theory is: testable, results in new predictions, is made up of previously known facts, and is supported by findings of new research 2. Hypothesis o Testable prediction about the relationship between 2+ variables 3. Observation o Naturalistic Observation o Laboratory Observation o Participants Observation o Case Study 4. Drawing conclusions 5. Theory construction OR modification 6. New research questions OR hypotheses Bystander Effect Individuals are not quick to help someone in immediate danger if others are also present The more people there are, the more the responsibility is diffused among them Goals of the Scientific Method Description o Methods of observation Prediction o Correlation Explanation o Experimentation Methods of Observation Naturalistic Observation o Simply watching natural actions/reactions of humans and animals in their natural environment o Subjects are unaware that they are being observed o Helps to develop new theories o Common in observing animal behavior Laboratory Observation o Participants are aware that they are coming in to be observed Participant Observation o Rosenhan’s study: he had 8 people pretend that they had mental illnesses and go live in mental hospitals Case Study o Looks at individuals in special situations o HM: had brain surgery performed on his hippocampus (part of the brain essential in memory formation) to prevent the seizures that he kept having, it was effective in treating his seizures but it impaired his ability to form long term memories, studied until his death o Phineas Gage: railroad spike went through his skull, it did not kill him but his personality was permanently altered Survey Research Acquiring a Sample Representativeness o Representative v. biased Sampling Techniques o Probability: everyone in the population has a chance of being in the study Random sample: randomly selecting from the total population Systematic sample: every nth element is sampled after a randomly determined start (chooses number 3, chooses name Smith, starts at Smith and then selects every third name after that first name) Stratified sample: put population into groups and then take a certain number from each, ensures that each population is represented equally o Nonprobability: not the case that everyone in the population has a chance of being in the study Convenience sampling: takes first 30 that show up, only because it is convenient for everyone involved Sources of Bias The interviewer o Looking for specific answers The participant o Answers carelessly o Memory problems (under/over reporting) o Lying o Answers in a way that will prevent their reputation from being tainted Correlation Ex: the more television you watch, the worse your health is Perfect positive relationship: r=+1.0 Perfect negative relationship: r=1.0 No correlation (independent): r=0 Correlation coefficient is determined by direction and strength o A closer the coefficient is to the number 1 (disregarding +/) the stronger it is, the closer the coefficient is to the number 0 the weaker it is Correlation does NOT imply causation o Causation cannot be implied due to problems regarding directionality and the influence of third variables Correlation is used to develop new ideas and experiments Experimentation IV (independent): manipulated by the researcher, this is the variable that the researcher predicts is going to cause a change DV (dependent): measured by the researcher, this is the variable that the researcher predicts will be affected or changed by the IV Experimental control: variables that are unintentionally manipulated during the course of the experiment o Solution: random assignment Experimental group: manipulation is present Control group: manipulation is absent Sources of Bias in Experimental Research Selection factor: specially selecting certain participants to be in either the control group or the experimental group so that they benefit from the experiment o Solution: random assignment Placebo Effect: taking any sort of pill or tangible treatment and believing to feel the effect of it, even if it is a placebo Demand Characteristics: deceiving the participants about what is being researched so that they do not influence the results in any way Experimenter Bias: when the experimenter starts looking for certain results, therefore influencing their findings o Solution: using naïve or blind experiments Ethics in Science What is ethical research? o Milgrim: shock experiment, not very ethical, could be very upsetting to the participants during/after the experiment o Providing freedom of choice: allowing participants to stop the experiment at any time o Securing informed consent Providing information about the length of the experiment, foreseeable risks, the procedure of the experiment, compensation o Maintaining awareness of power differentials Avoiding abuse of power (the researcher should not show up late or promise compensation that cannot be provided, should be respectful of their position and the position of the participant) Maintaining confidentiality of the participant o Being honest about the use of the research being conducted Deception: using it only when appropriate, finding alternatives to deception, being aware of any consequences that deception might incur upon the participant Debriefing: discussion with the participant after the experiment in which you tell them what the research was actually measuring, make any clarifications, let them present any questions/concerns Using animals as research participants o APA ethical principles in place o Must have justification o Animal review boards: make sure that the animals have quality care, are treated as humanely as possible Ensuring ethical research o Institutional review board weighs costs and benefits o Personal ethics upheld by the researcher(s) play integral role in the decision of whether or not a study is ethical
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