The Moon - Week 5 Notes - ASTR 1345
The Moon - Week 5 Notes - ASTR 1345 ASTR 1345-004
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sera on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1345-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by James J Davis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345 The Moon Earth’s closest celestial neighbor Located an average of 385,000 km from Earth Orbital distance varies by roughly 12% Does not have a perfectly circular orbit around Earth Moon is very, very slowly drifting away from us and slowing us down (at a very slow rate) “Super moon’s” occur when the moon is closest to the Earth and full The moon is actually a very dark color because of its rocky composition and only reflects about 7% of the light that hits it o The moon would appear considerably more bright if it were made of metal or ice Moon is ~81 times smaller than the Earth o Moon is tilted approximately 7 away from the Earth The Moon’s orbit around Earth is tilted as well o It does not orbit around Earth’s equator o This is part of what makes eclipses so rare On planets like Jupiter, which has moons that do orbit around the equator, eclipses occur multiple times a week Apogee – point of furthest distance Perigee – point of closest distance The Far Side of the Moon Tidal locking o Earth’s gravity keeps only one side of the Moon facing the Earth o We never see the “far side” of the moon o Moon rotates ~11 miles per hour “The Dark Side” o Isn’t actually dark o Has a lot more crater impacts, less mare Lunar nights last 15 Earth days o Lunar rock gets extremely cold during the lunar night and extremely hot during lunar days Lunar Phases The phases of the moon are due to two effects: o The Moon’s position in its orbit around the Earth o The illumination of the lunar surface by the Sun The Orbit of the Moon Sidereal period: the time it takes to complete one orbit in relation to the background stars The Moon travels a complete 360 circle every 27.3days (sidereal period) Synodic period: the time it takes to return to the same angle in relation with the sun and Earth Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345 Moon takes 29.5 days to complete a synodic cycle The synodic cycle is longer because the Earth is in motion around the sun while the Moon is trying to realign with the Sun and Earth Eclipses Solar Eclipse occurs when the Earth falls into the shadow of the Moon o Sun is covered by the Moon Sun Moon Earth Sometimes an eclipse occurs but the shadow falls above or below the Earth, so we do not get to see it Only the portion of the Earth which the shadow falls on can see the eclipse Total solar eclipse – darkest part of the Moon’s shadow falls on the Earth’s surface o Lasts 7 minutes max o Umbra – darkest part of the shadow o Penumbra – partially illuminated part of a shadow Partial solar eclipse – Only part of the Sun’s disk is covered by the new moon Annular solar eclipse – Moon’s disk covers most, but not quite all of the sun o Moon is slightly further away than usual and appears smaller “Diamond ring” – when sunlight breaks through mountains on the moon and shines like a diamond Lunar Eclipse Occurs when the Moon falls into the shadow of the Earth Sun-Earth-Moon alignment Can only occur during a full moon Moon turns blood red because of the way Earth’s atmosphere scatters light Sun Earth Moon
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