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Principles of Chemistry Fundamentals

by: Kazendi Simon

Principles of Chemistry Fundamentals CHEM 1211K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > CHEM 1211K > Principles of Chemistry Fundamentals
Kazendi Simon
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Standard Definitions Periodic Table Break Down Practice Problems Understanding of a Group and Period exceptions
Principles of Chemistry I
Dr. Kerr
Class Notes
Math, Chemistry




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kazendi Simon on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1211K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kerr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Periodic Table Comprehension  Geography of the Periodic Table  Columns are called “Groups” [Columns go up and down] o Also known as “Families”  Rows are called “Periods” [Rows go across.]  Sentences are horizontal – at the end of a sentence you have a period. So, rows are “periods” o s­block – the first two groups of the Periodic Table o p­block – last six groups of the Periodic Table o d­block – the ten groups in the middle of the Periodic Table o f­block – the fourteen groups which are usually drawn below the rest of the Periodic Table Some of the Blocks have Special Names & Factors:  The s and p­blocks together make the representative elements  The d­block is known as the transition elements or the transition metals (except for  Group 11)  The first row of the f­block is known as the lanthanide series.  The second row of the f­block are known as the actinide series.  Some Groups have special names  Group 1 is known as the Alkali Metals  Group 2 is known as the Alkaline Earth Metals  Group 17 is known as the Halogens  Groups 18 is known as the Noble Gases  o The number of valence electrons and the Group number are related  Group 1 = 1 valence electron  Group 2 = 2 valence electrons  Groups 3 – 12 = 2 valence electrons o Atoms in these groups are adding electrons to their inner levels, keeping a  constant number of valence electrons o Two exceptions:  Cr has one valence electron  Cu has one valence electron Key Concepts 1. The periodic table is a chart containing information about the atoms that make up all  matter. 2. An element is a substance made up of only one type of atom. 3. The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus. 4. The number of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus. 5. Different atoms of the same element can have a different number of neutrons. 6. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are called “isotopes”  of that element. 7. The atomic mass of an element is the average mass of the different isotopes of the  element. 8. The atoms in the periodic table are arranged to show characteristics and relationships  between atoms and groups of atoms. Basic Definitions  Proton: Positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom. The number of protons in  an atom’s nucleus is the atomic number.  Electron: Negatively charged particle surrounding the nucleus of the atom. The number  of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom is equal to the number of protons in the  atom’s nucleus.  Neutron: Particle in the nucleus that has almost the same mass as a proton but has no  charge. For the atoms of the first 20 elements, the number of neutrons is either equal to or slightly greater than the number of protons. Need to Know  A; Main group elements/ Representative Elements Everything other than the transition  metals. You can predict their movements and properties. Based upon the groups  Po; Polonium is all of the above; because it is so rare, Polonium is made by first making  Bismuth (also found in pitchblende). Bismuth ­209 is found and then artificially changed  to Bismuth ­210 which then decays to form Polonium ­210. Polonium has a position in  the periodic table that could make it a metal, a metalloid or a nonmetal.  At; Astatine is usually placed with the metalloids or the nonmetals by different authors  based on its position in periodic table, but in truth, astatine is so unstable in its elemental  form, we have no idea which one it is. Chemistry Practice Problems  1. Materials A and B have the same volume. A has a higher density than B. Which is true. a. A has a lower mass than B b. B has a lower mass than A c. A and B have the same mass d. Can’t Predict. 2. What is the volume of a 2.0 oz. piece of metal? 3 1 oz. 28.35g, density of metal 3 0.985g/cm 28.35 1cm 3  ( 1oz ×2.0oz ) 0.985g =58cm 3. What is the Volume of a 1.50 carat diamond? 1 carat = 200 mg (exactly) 3 Density of the diamond = 2.75 mg/cm 3 200mg ×1.50carat × 1cm =109cm 3  (1carat ) 2,75mg 4. What is the volume of Copper (Ca) has the same mass as 10.0 cm  of Zn? a. Copper 8.96 g/ml b. Zinc 7.13 g/ml 7.13gZn 3 1cm Cu 3  ( 1cm 3 ×10.0cm Zn ×) 8.96gCu =7.96cm Accurate and Precise 10.7 g/ml Actual 10.6 g/ml 10.6 g/ml 10.7 g/ml - 0 - 4 - 5 Is this classes John Measurements Precise or Accurate; or - 6 both. Explain why?  - N/A - N/A - N/A - N/A - N/A - 50


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