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Biology Notes

by: Bridget Taft

Biology Notes Biology

Bridget Taft
GPA 4.0
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Bio Notes
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Taft on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology at Utah Valley University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see in Science at Utah Valley University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Biology is the scientific study of life Cells -are the basic unit of life -uses DNA to produce proteins Organism every organism, or living individual, consists of one or more cells Life Is Organization-Atoms form molecules. These molecules form the Organelles inside many cells. An Organism consists of one or more cells. In most multicellular organisms, cells form Tissues and then Organs and Organ Systems -whether unicellular or multicellular, multiple individuals of the same species make up Populations; multiple populations form Communities. Ecosystems include living communities plus their nonliving environment -the Biosphere is composed of all the worlds ecosystems -Emergent Properties arise from interactions among the parts of an organism Life Requires Energy -life requires energy to maintain its organization and functions. Producers make their own food, using energy and nutrients extracted from the nonliving environment -Because of heat losses, all ecosystems require constant energy input from an outside source, usually the sun Life Maintains Internal Constancy organisms must maintain Homeostasis, an internal state of constancy in changing environmental conditions. Life Reproduces Itself, Grows, and Develops -organisms reproduce asexually, sexually, or both -Asexual Reproduction yields virtually identical copies of one parent -Sexual Reproduction generates tremendous genetic diversity by combining and scrambling DNA from two parents Life Evolves -in Natural Selection, environmental conditions select for organisms with inherited traits (Adaptations) that increase the chance of survival and reproduction -Evolution through natural selection explains how common ancestry unites all species, producing diverse organisms with many similarities The Tree of Life Includes Three Main Branches -Taxonomy is the science of classification. Biologists classify types of organisms, or Species, according to probable evolutionary relationships. A Genus, for example, consists of closely related species -the two broadest taxonomic levels are domain and kingdom -the three Domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Without each domain, mode of nutrition and other features distinguish the Kingdoms Scientists Study the Natural World A. The Scientific Method Has Multiple Interrelated Parts - scientific inquiry, which uses the Scientific Method, is a way of using evidence to evaluate ideas about the natural world -a scientist makes observations, raises questions, and uses reason to construct a testable explanation, or Hypothesis. Specific Predictions follow from a scientific hypothesis after collecting data and making conclusions based on the evidence, the investigator may seek to publish scientific result. Peer Review ensure that published studies meet high standards for quality B. An Experimental Design Is a Careful Plan -an Experiment is a test of a hypothesis carried out in controlled conditions -the larger the Sample Size, the more credible the results of an experiment -Variables are changeable elements in an experiment. the Independent Variable is the factor that the investigator manipulates. the Dependent Variable is what the investigator measures to determine the outcome of the experiment. Standardized Variables are held constant for all subjects, including Control group (often a set of subjects receiving no treatment or Placebo) -Statistically Significant results are unlikely to be due to chance C. Theories Are Comprehensive Explanations -a Theory is more widely accepted and broader in scope than a hypothesis -the acceptance of scientific ideas may change as new evidence accumulates D. Scientific Inquiry Has Limitations -the scientific method does not always yield a complete explanation, or it may produce ambiguous results. Science cannot answer all questions-only those for which it is possible to develop testable hypothesis E. Biology Continues to Advance -Technology is the practical application of scientific knowledge. Advances in science lead to new technologies, and vice versa


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