ENEC 201 Week 6 Notes: 9/26/16-9/30/16
ENEC 201 Week 6 Notes: 9/26/16-9/30/16 ENEC 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENEC 201 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by GANGI,GREGORY J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY in Environment and Ecology at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
ENEC 201 Week 6 Notes: 9/26/16-9/30/16 9/26/16 - To encourage management to prioritize shareholders, made CEO’s and others high up in the company major shareholders o Began bonus culture: owns large portion of stocks in company, so makes lots of money as “bonuses”, which encourages/incentivizes reckless behavior - What factors separate sustainable countries from unsustainable countries: o Court/judicial system: justice ultimately decide on environmental policies Voting for president decides the make-up of the judicial system- must think about this when voting o Willingness to sacrifice Value long-term enough to make small sacrifices in the short-term o Political party system: Bipartisan system creates tribal system that makes focus more personal instead of about the issues, little gets done because other always opposes Multi-party system leads to better cooperation, larger pool of ideas, people less attached to one particular party Difficult to change in US- possibly on state level Must have threshold on multi-party system (only 3-5 parties) to avoid gridlock and cooperation difficulties No one party has majority, so forced to cooperate o Ability of corporations to use corporate funds in political campaigns Corporations allowed to do this have too much influence o Use of discretionary money US uses most money for military to ensure security Doesn’t think about damage to environment as threat to our security Climate change/environmental problems pose greater threat to US and world security o Industrial policy: plan to get to top of technology ladder Some view government intervention in markets/industries is picking winners and losers unfairly Market won’t favor important environmentally-friendly technology innovations right now Once started, market will favor it Necessary to think in the long-term - Population growth: recent exponential growth, largest spike in 1970’s, but began in late 19 century o Industrialization of agriculture: more food and more stable food supply, increased trading ability o Sanitation/public health: cities used to be death traps because poor sanitation o Specialization: more productive economies higher standard of living Increased production of windows allowed more UV lights into homes to kill bacteria - Population expected to go to between 9 billion and 13 billion o Important to consider when thinking about resource supply o Must think about feeding more than just people in US - Demographic transition: o Stage 1: agricultural societies Birth rates and death rates high o Stage 2-3: increased population growth European population overflow able to emigrate In today’s world, options are : move to city, emigrate illegally, or impose on natural landscape to get more farmland (rural to rural migration) o Stage 3-4: birth rates and death rates decline Don’t need to have as many children to make up for the ones that die Takes time to make this cultural change Move to city decreases incentive for large families In rural areas, incentive to have children to work on farm, more space for them In cities, focus on education- more difficult to send large amounts of children to school Increased education of women delayed reproduction and fewer children Going to school causes women to get married/start families later Empowerment of women leads to reduced fertility More freedom to use contraception 9/28/16 - Hunter-gatherer societies not as primitive/backward as many think o Egalitarian, cooperation important o Some social stratification, but hardly any power of one group over another - Agriculture changed nature of human society: o Gender inequality: Men had control over land and women viewed as property o Poor public health: people congregate in groups that communicate with one another Increases spread of disease Domestication of livestock in settled communities increases disease Diseases from lack of sanitation- people forced to live in filth, stay in same place without proper technology to clean o Poor nutrition increases disease and other health problems Hunter-gatherers ate variety of food/food groups Agriculture relied on starchy crops as principal means of nutrition Able to provide more food for increased population o Reliance on few main crops problems when one crop fails Increased risk of starvation o Stronger social class divisions: possibility of keeping surplus allows specialization of jobs, some jobs valued more than others higher status able to buy more food Higher social classes exempt from disease and famine Money=power, able to impose interests on rest of population - Why did agriculture prevail despite disadvantages? o Population pressure: began with planting of emergency gardens to provide for growing population Must stay in one place to protect garden from other groups Birth rate increases with starchy diet from gardens Puberty and diet closely linked- body fat content leads to earlier puberty Able to reproduce earlier and have more kids Hunter-gatherers breastfeed longer because must carry baby around Breastfeeding releases hormones that act as contraceptives Leads to lower birth rates in hunter-gatherers o Climate change: climate became more stable, so safer to pursue agriculture Reduces risk of uncertainty about climate, which originally discouraged agriculture o Increased sphere of community Leads to decreased male-male fighting within society Caused by development of cultural morns that promote cooperation and standards of behavior - Once agriculture developed, spread quickly because agriculture can sustain larger population with less o Able to overtake hunter-gatherer populations with sheer numbers - Agriculture developed in many places independent of each other - Irrigation allows agriculture to take-off, huge increase in food supply o Lead to growth of towns/cities - Growth of trade led to increased population growth o Better diets, less dependency on one single crop - Industrialization, vaccines, better hygiene increased population in 20 century 9/30/16 - Boserup hypothesis: thought humans develop technologies and put them away until population pressure forces them to be necessary for survival o Contrary to Thomas Malthus ideas - Most population growth happening in developing countries o Don’t have option to emigrate to other parts of world like Europeans did o Puts increased pressure on certain areas where people must stay - Reasons for high fertility rates today: o Some places still view children as sources of income- work on farms to produce more o Limited/lack of access to contraception/family planning Religious reasons: some religions don’t allow contraception, especially influential in countries controlled by specific religions Can lead to illegal and dangerous abortions because stigma associated with using contraception (considered promiscuous) Cost limits ability to use: should subsidize contraception through foreign aid Subsidies should also cover education about contraception and family planning Limited mobility: women especially have problem travelling long distances to get contraception or abortion Reproductive/family planning resources must come to them o Gender inequality: Desired fertility: number of children women want to have Realized fertility: number of children women actually have Usually because of reasons outside of their control o Norms/identity of women: women identify by being able to provide healthy children (usually males) Cultural norms encourage large families - Factors that decrease fertility rates: good and bad ways (ethical and unethical) o Bad system: India Large-scale sterilization of women: had to meet quotas, so sterilized without consent or agree out of desperation (offered small amount of money in return) o Increase education of women/girls: often not sent to school or pulled out early because boys believed to have better chance to be successful Less funding for education in general o Empower women economically - Economic empowerment of women: Grameen Bank microcredit o Women able to take out loans that can be paid back with low interest over longer period of time o Women able to use the loans toward businesses to increase profits Ex. use loan to buy rickshaw to be able to make a long-term living o Also use loans to improve village infrastructure Especially preventative healthcare improvements (ex. wells, sanitation capabilities, education, etc.)
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