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Arabic Week 1 Notes

by: Abby J

Arabic Week 1 Notes ARB101

Marketplace > University of Oregon > ARB101 > Arabic Week 1 Notes
Abby J
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These notes cover... - The basics of Arabic - Everyday phrases - Beginning the alphabet - How to write in Arabic
Beginning Arabic I
Hanan Elsherif
Class Notes
arabic, Language, university of oregon, UO, beginning




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby J on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARB101 at University of Oregon taught by Hanan Elsherif in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Arabic Notes #1 Arabic v. Muslim  There are 22 Arabic countries. It should be noted that Arabic and Muslim countries are not the same thing, because Arabs and Muslims are not the same thing.  An Arab is a person whose native language is Arabic, while a Muslim is a follower of Islam.  For example, Iran is a Muslim country, but not an Arabic country, because its official language is actually Persian. However, as a fact, all Arabic countries are Muslim—just not all Muslim countries are Arabic. Characteristics of Arabic 1. Phonic language 2. Root-based 3. It is read and written from right to left 4. 28 Letters 5. 3 long vowels (uu, ii, aa) 6. No upper/lower case distinction 7. Text is written in two layers: letters, and pronunciation markers 8. Written in cursive; letters are never disconnected as they are in English print To be considered fluent in Arabic, you must be fluent in one of the dialects and Modern Standard Arabic (also called Classical Arabic). Modern Standard Arabic is formal, written Arabic, while one of the other dialects you will learn is more conversational. The two most common dialects are Egyptian (maSri), due to the prominence of Egyptian media, and Levantine (which is spoken in the Levant, aka Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan), and is called shaami in Arabic. Polite Conversation Phrases Introducing Yourself Ismii… = My name is… Tasharafna ya (name) = Honored to meet you, (name) Note: “Ya” is only used if you are speaking face to face. Greetings Sabah el khair = good morning To respond to good morning, say sabah enoor Ahlan = hi Marhaba = hi Marhabtein = hi (excited) Ahlan wa sahlan = welcome If you are speaking with a man, reply to this by saying ahlan biik If you are speaking with a woman, reply to this by saying ahlan bikii Another way to greet someone is: As salamu alikum = Peace upon you To which you would reply with: Wa alikum as salaam = and upon you too Kwayes (if you are male)/kwayessa (if you are female) alhamdullelah = fine thanks to God Shukran = thanks ‘Afwen = you’re welcome ‘Andy su’aal = I have a question Ashuufek/ashuufik bukra = see you tomorrow La afhem = I don’t understand Mumkin marrah tanya = repeat please Mumkin ilHammaam? = Can I go to the restroom? Min fadlek (to a man)/fadlik (to a woman) = please Wa ana ayDen = Me too Aywa= yes La = no Good-Bye Ma’asalamah = bye Allah yesalemak (to a man)/yesalemek (to a woman) = bye Other Min ayna anti (to a woman)/anta (to a man)? = where are you from? Ana min … = I am from… Shukren = thank you ’Afwen = you’re welcome Wa anta/anti? = and you? Polite/Informal “You” Formal Informal Masculine HaDritak Anta Feminine HaDritik Anti  Formal “you” should be used when you don’t know a person well, they are older than you, or higher in rank. The Arabic Alphabet  The Arabic language has its own alphabet, made up of 28 letters.  Each letter can change depending on where it is located in a word: by itself (independent), beginning a word (initial), in the middle of a word (medial), or at the end of a word (final).  The Arabic alphabet is written RIGHT TO LEFT. Alif Final Medial Initial Independent اـ اـ ا ا  First letter of Arabic alphabet.  If you see an alif at the beginning of a word, it’s not a vowel—it’s a consonant.  The alif is a non-connector, meaning when written in Arabic script it does not connect on the left. Baa Final Medial Initial Independent ـبـ ـب ب بـ Taa Final Medial Initial Independent تـ ـتـ ـت ت Pronounced like an English T, but without any breathiness. Very clear sound. Thaa Final Medial Initial Independent ثـ ـثـ ـث ث Pronounced with a th sound. Wow Final Medial Initial Independent وـ وـ و و Non-connector Pronounced with an uu sound Yaa Final Medial Initial Independent يـ ي ـيـ ـي Pronounced with an ii sound Jiim Final Medial Initial Independent ـجـ ج جـ ـج  Like the j in jack; except in Egypt, where it pronounced like a g Haa Final Medial Initial Independent حـ ـحـ ـح ح  To make this sound, make a sound like you’re trying to fog glass. Khaa Final Medial Initial Independent خـ ـخـ ـخ خ  A sound like the Scottish pronunciation of loch. Putting Letters Together Example #1 باب This word is bab, or door. The individual letters of bab in Arabic are baa, alif, baa. But it isn’t written like this (remember Arabic is written right to left): ب أ ب That’s because Arabic words are always written in script (like cursive in English), be a small break in the word.ept when a letter is a non-connector: then there will connect on the left. This looks like:But because the alif is a non-connector, it doesn’t أب The alif is distinguishable because it is taller than the first hook. Then the last letter, another baa, is placed by itself afterwards, so the full word is: Example #2 باب تباث This is the word fixed. It also has the same situation with the first two letters as in example one—there is a short gap because of an alif. But the second pair of letters is a little different. In example one, there was only one letter after the alif, so it change positions.ependent position. But because there are now two, the letters The letters in the second half of the word are baa and ta. Baa is placed in its initial position, like this: ـب And ta in its final position, because it’s the last letter of the word, like this: تـ And together, they look like this: تب Long Vowels v. Short Vowels  The three long vowels are:اa), which makes an aa sound; wow (و ), which makes an uu sound; and yaa ( ي), which makes an ii sound.  Each long vowels has a corresponding short vowel, which is demonstrated with an accent mark. Picture ِ َ ُ Example تب ِ تب َ تب ُ Short vowel Kasrah Fathah Dammah name Short vowel Bottom Top Top Short vowel I A U sound Sound Like the “I” in s“a” in ba The “u” in put Quiz! 1. Translate this conversation. Aisha: Hi! My name is Aisha. Abba: Nice to meet you, Aisha. My name is Abba. Where are you from? Aisha: I am from Cairo. And you? Abba: I am from Syria. Bye! Aisha: Bye! 2. Which short vowel does this mark designate? ُ a) Kasrah c) Dammah 3. What is a non-connector? a) a letter that connects on the right but not the left b) a letter that connects on the left but not the right c) a letter that stands alone in a word True/False __ Every long vowel has a corresponding short vowel. __ To be fluent in Arabic, you only have to know one dialect. __ Arab is the same thing as Muslim. __ Arabic is written right to left. Connect the letter to its sound. ج ي ت ث ا ب و ح خ Haa khaa baa thaa taa yaa jiim wow alif Write out these words. _________ = ب + ا+ ب __________ =ت + ث+ ب+ ي + ت More Ways to Study


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