Week 10: Violence in Media
Week 10: Violence in Media JMC:1100:0AAA
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Tuesday March 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1100:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Patrick Wright in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Media Uses and Effects in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/31/15
Lecture 15 Violence in the Media Media Today MultiTasking Harms Learning 0 Experiment compared laptop notetaking to pen and paper 0 Laptop users scores 11 lower on test 0 Student who could see a laptop scored 17 lower than those who couldn t see one YikYak 0 NY Times Used for anonymous and offensive messages and threats 0 Greeks need a PR Rep Penn State s Facebook issue 0 TotalFratMovecom Carter Cruise Sorority Girl turned Porn Star 0 Media depicted a way certain people are A History of Violent Concern Payne Fund Studies 0 Concerned about effects of films on children Since the adoption ofTV in the 1950s 0 More than 4000 studies have examined the correlation between violence and violent behavior in children 1960s Culture Produces Violence Assassinations Civil Rights Movement Vietnam Does Life lmitate Art Does TV kill 0 1995 Program 0 Eron and Notel Study Both noticed that there were some effects but couldn t draw conclusions So What Can repeated exposure to violence through mass media make people more violent Granted the amount of violence hasn t changed since the 1960s but its form has changed significantly 0 Now sensory overload 0 Not the violence but the level of the violence Media Research Takes Aim at Violence Content 1 Post1960s Development of many social science theory regarding violence and the media 2 Three Theoretical trends 1 Catharsis Freshbach 2 Social Learning Theory Bandura 3 Cultivation Theory Gerbner Catharsis Hypothesis Key Violent content serves as a release of aggressive energy 0 Watching violent content could reduce a viewer s aggression or anger Limitations 0 Short term effects at best 0 Research fails to prove catharsis does decrease aggressive behavior Social Learning Theory Key We learn and adopt social behaviors after we observe symbolic representations of the behavior in daily life 0 How we learn good behavior and bad behavior in certain situations Then we model it when we are in the same situation Anyone could be a model 0 Models any examples of behavior provided in our family environments Other people TV characters Celebrities Bandura Bobo Doll experiment 0 Children watching a model beat a Bobo Doll When children interacted with their own Bobo Doll they beat the snot out of it Social Learning Theory Based On Imitation direct repetition of an observed behavior Abstract Modeling 0 Developing knowledge and skills for future use in similar situations 0 About learning the behavior notjust imitating it o The basis of social learning theory not imitation Identification how much the person resembles you demographically o Younger people are more likely to identify with a wide variety of characters Identification lessens with age Social learning Theory Criticisms Limitations 0 Bandura studied children with the lab 0 He denied them access to the other toys in the room to make them more aggressive Ecological validity the extend to which a study represents the real world 0 Not real situations Conclusion Still concerned about violent content and behavior years after the Payne Fund Study Catharsis still exists as theory without proof Social learning may be influential than we think Lecture 16 Violence in Media Continued Media Today New Take on Cinderella Screen Junkies Honest Trailers Josh Groban s Gay Rumors 0 Media enjoy the out game 0 Subtle Media Messages Bigger issue about Men s Emotional Freedom Lack can be deadly 0 Why does this matter Last Time History of violence and television Introduction to media violence theories Today More Social Learning Theory Video games 3 Ways Social Learning Works 1 Observational Learning learn unfamiliar behavior by watching it in the media 2 Inhibitory Effects seeing behaviors punished in media teaches us not to model those behaviors 0 ex criminal arrested 0 But can extend social issues you need to look and act a certain way for people to like you 0 Notjust about crime about any behavior that breaks a norm 3 Disinhibitory Effects negative behavior is rewarded amp makes us more likely to model 0 Alcoholics considered fun people 0 No discussion about real results of alcoholism TV Creates AntiSocial Children Concern kids are watching more and more television Does it impact their behavior 0 Sample 11000 children born in 20002002 0 Mothers completed survey when kids were 5 amp 7 On how welladjusted kids were and how much time spent watching TV or playing computerelectronic games Finding 15 of 5 year olds watched TV and 3 played games 3 or more hoarser day Researchers statistically controlled for parenting amp family dynamics made everyone the same Finding Watching more than 3 hours ofTV per day was associated with a small increase in antisocial behavior Violent MediaAiolent Society Bobo Dolls aren t the only issue in the debate Point 1 Adults who were spanked as children more likely to use violence to get what they want rape fights etc Point 2 Could video games support preexisting attitudes and behaviors or serve as a release form them Is this the culture or is this the media Are the Effects of Violence in the Watching or Doing We are seeing continued increase in people playing video games 0 Video games reward or punish players for certain behaviors 0 Some games do both at the same time 0 Video games are actually less influential than TV and other types of media How We Study Video Games Players randomly assigned to ProSocial or violent video games o ProSocial positive behaviors that help society 0 ProSocial Games helping behavior empathy 0 Violent games approval of aggressive and hostility Surveys and experiments with 5th graders 7th graders and college students from three different countries Result 1 Games Have Little Effect No connection between game and reality or efficacy difficult for a player to model the behavior because technology in violent video games is not readily available Players can differentiate between game and reality 0 But violent and prosocial games affect how we View the world But Other Results Shown Violent games have been associated with 1 Increased aggressive behaviors and thought 2 Increased psychological arousal Triggers fear and anxiety or fight or flight response Can be manipulated 3 Decreased prosocial behavior Desire to care about or help others lessened These are found even in nonaggressive people who view them for a short time 0 From American Psychological Association CounterArgument to Results Mood Management Theory people chose media to fit their current mood with the goal of improving it Key players use games to gain control over a virtual world to avoid feelings of helplessness in current life 0 One study found it helps alleviate depression and curb hostility Problem Causality Uhlmann amp Swanson Violent video game play makes players feel more aggressive But Aggressive feelings don t always lead to aggressive actions Most players end up taking out aggression in games instead of random shoo ngs Conclusion Social learning works in 3 ways Violent content of TV and video games does have an effect on user s aggression No proven casually yet between video game aggression and real life aggressive ac ons