Sports Psychology Chapter 18 Notes
Sports Psychology Chapter 18 Notes PSYCH 380
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keel on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 380 at University of South Carolina taught by Joe Ferraracci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Sports Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Sport and Exercise Psychology Chapter 18 Notes Monday, September 26, 2016 5:31 PM Reasons for exercising • -Weight control (counter obesity epidemic • -Reduced risk f cardiovascular disease • -Reduction in stress and depression • -Enjoyment • -Building self esteem • Keys ○ Exercise combined with proper eating habits can help people lose weight ○ Weight loss should be slow and steady ○ Both the physiological and psychological benefits of exercise can be cited to persuade sedentary people to initiate exercise ○ Maintenance and initiation of physical activity are critical Reasons for Not Exercising • Perceived lack of time • Lack of energy • Lack of motivation • Keys ○ Should point out the benefits of exercise and provide an environment to support people based on their problems help get this across to them ○ People usually blame time but usually this more perceived than real, priorities are above exercise usually ○ People of different ages and sexes have different reasons. Individual barriers to physical activity • Health Issues • Inconvenienced • Lack of motivation and energy • Lack of social support • Lack of time and money Why people have a problem with exercise adherence • The programs are usually based on data, ignoring people's psychological readiness to exercise • Most exercise prescriptions are overly restrictive and are not optimal for enhancing motivation for regular exercise • Rigid exercise prescriptions based on principles of intensity, duration and frequency are too challenging for people especially beginners • Traditional exercise prescriptions don’t promote people to be responsibleabout how they need to change how healthy they are Theories and Models of Exercise Behavior (Look at the other models as well) Health belief model • The likelihood of exercising depends on the persons perceptions of the severity of health risks and appraisal of the costs and benefits of taking action • This model has too much variability, but it has still contributed and this is important Social Cognitive Theory • Exercise behavior is influenced by both personal and environmental factors, particularly self- efficacy • Self-efficacy is strongly related to exercise participation, especially in middle aged and older adults • Social cognitive theory takes into account those personal and environmental factors Self-Determination Theory • People are inherently motivated to feel "connectedness" "autonomy" and "Competence" (DECI) • People are inherently motivated to feel "connectedness" "autonomy" and "Competence" (DECI) <---- know this guy Trans-theoretical model • A person progresses through six stages ○ Precontemplation: does not exercise ○ Contemplation- has fleeting thoughts of exercising ○ Preparation- exercising but not to a specific plan where its not routine to cause change ○ Action: has been exercising regularly but for less than 6 months ○ Maintenance: has been exercising regularly for more than 6 months ○ Termination: Once exercisers have been exercising for at least 5 years and have CONTINUED that (not the end) • During exercise, behavior induction strategies are used during the different transtheoetical stages • Matching the intervention to the stage of change is effective in producing high levels of physical exercise. Ecological Model (LOOK IN BOOK AT IMAGE) Integration of models • In reality it is much better if all of the models are put together Keeping people active: preventing relapses • Expect and plan for lapses • Developing coping strategies to deal with high-risksituations (ex: relaxation training time management, imagery) • Replace "shoulds"with "wants" to provide more balance in your life ("Shoulds"put pressure on expectations on yourself) Determinants of Exercise adherence: highlights • Demographic variables have a strong association with physical activity • Barriers to exercise are similarfor all of the population • A convenience location is an important prediction of exercise behavior • Physical activity decreases with age with adolescence (12-19) • Self-efficacy and self-motivation consistently predict physical activity • Early involvement in sport and exercise should be encouraged because there is a + relationship between childhood exercise and adult activity • Exercise levels should be kept at the same level so that it will be more likely that they will continue exercising. Strategies for enhancing adherence to exercise • Six categories of techniques Cat 1: Behavior Modification Approaches • Prompts: Verbal, physical, or symboliccues initiate behaviors (e.g. posters encouraging people to take the stairs placing running shoes by bed • Contracting: participants enter into a contract with exercise practitioners Cat 2:Reinforcment Approaches • Charting attendance or participation • Rewards for attendance and participation: Rewards improve attendance but most be provided throughout the length of the program • Feedback: Providing feedback to participants on their progress has + motivational effects • Self-monitoring: Participants keep written records of their physical activity, Cat 3:cognitive behavioral approaches • Goal setting should be used to motivate individuals • Exercise-related goals should be ○ Self-set rather than instructor-set ○ Flexible rather than fixed ○ Time-based rather than distance-based • Cognitive techniques: dissociativestrategies: you should focus on pain and fatigue you need to be able to train yourself to not pay attention to those things it's probably because you haven't lifted in a while, by having mind of body you can help find higher levels of exercise and you can stick to in a while, by having mind of body you can help find higher levels of exercise and you can stick to your levels of exercise Cat 4: Decision making approaches • Involve exercisers in decisions regarding program structure • Develop balance sheets • Completing a decision balance sheet to increase awareness of the costs and benefits of participating in an exercise program Cat 5: Social Support Approaches • A person who is encouraging of you to go exercise not someone who is forcing you to do ti but someone who is encouraging of you to do ti • Being ins small groups can help a lot or having a buddy system Cat 6: intrinsicapproaches • Focus on experience itself • Take a process orientation • Engage in purposeful and meaningful physical activity Motivational Interviewing • It's like an intervention to increase the client to adhere to a specificprogram • Motivation to change is elected from the client rather than the counselor • Client-counselor relationship is more of a partnership. Guidelines for improving exercise adherence • Match the intervention to the participants stage of change • Provide cues for exercises (signs, posters, cartoons) • Make the exercise enjoyable • Tailor the intensity, duration and frequency of the exercises. • Promote exercising with a group or friend • Have participants sign a contract or statements of intent to comply with the exercise program • Offer a choice of activities • Provide rewards for attendance and participation • Give individualizedfeedback • Find a convenient way to exercise • Have participants reward themselves for achieving goals • Encourage goals to be self-set, flexible and time based (rather than distance based) • Remind participants to focus on environmental cues (not bodily ones) when exercising LOOK UP BALANCE SHEET • Use small-group discussions • Obtain social support from the participants spouse, family members and peers • Suggest keeping daily exercise logs • Practice time management skills • Help participants choose purposeful physical activities
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