Psychology 1010 9/27-9/29
Psychology 1010 9/27-9/29 PSY 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Farreh Sears on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Andrew Tenbrink in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Lecture 78 sensation and perceptions 9/279/29 Vocabulary: Absolute threshold: The minimum intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus 50% if the time. Accommodation: the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina. Blind spot: a location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the setina Cones: operating under normal conditions, this is a cell that detects color Fovea: Area of the retina where vision is clearest, there are no rods at all. Perception: Activity in the brain that organizes, identifies, and interoperates sensations to form. Psychometric function: subjective responses vs. stimulus intensity. Psychophysics: The methods that measures the strength of a stimulus and the observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus. Retina: light sensitive tissues lining the back of the eye ball. Rods: become active under lowlight conditions Sensation: The stimulation of a sense organ Signal Detection Theory: The response to a stimulus depends on a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus and their decision criterion. Transduction: Senses in the body convert physical signals form the environment into encoded neuro signals sent to the nervous system. Visual acuity: the ability to see fine details Weber’s law: The just noticeable differences of a stimulus is a consistent proportion despite variations in intensity. The distinct activities of sensation and perception. (detecting and knowing) Sensation A sensing process. It is the basic registration of light, sound, pressure, odor, or taste as parts of your body interact with the physical world. o Vision About half of your cortex is devoted to this o Auditory o Touch o Taste o Smell o After a sensation registers in your central nervous system, Perception applies a meaning to a sensation. takes place in your brain: the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation. Sensation and perception are related—but distinct —activities. Fire walking Is the ability to walk across hot coal one that arises from sensation or perception? Sensation, some materials conduct heat better than others. Coal is a bad transmitter of heat. Psychophysics do you ever wonder if two people see the same colors in the sky? the earliest psychology 2 Asked if the brain follows the natural physical laws. Focused on how the brain turns a stimulus into a perception of the stimulus. o The rules the brain follows. In a typical psychophysics experiment, researchers ask people to make a simple judgment The “Black box” characterization A replacement for the mind. When you feed something in, something comes out (though you can’t see the processes happening in the mind) o Independent variable manipulate physical stimulus o Dependent variable perception Determines the “laws” in which information is transformed into perception/ a look into the brain. Threshold The mini intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus in 50% of the trials, it is a boundary. Absolute threshold When subject can detect a stimulus ½ the time. Change threshold o JND (just noticeable difference) Is the minimum change is stimuli, such as how people can tell the the difference in the cry of a person in pain and the cry of a person that’s scared. Now called Weber’s law The limits of sensory systems 3 o Light experiment: Minimum of light that can be detected by humans Independent variable: Manipulating the amount of light a person is seeing. Dependent variable: asking the subject if they can see the light or is the can not see the light. Subjective response Psychometric function o At what level/amount do you detect the subject? Light experiment: some levels of light are undetectable for people, others are hit and misses while the last is the threshold where everyone sees light. What causes variability? o Noise Internal the sound in the brain External – the sound in the environment o Response bias You have to decide to report the stimulus The subjective response can be influenced by the bias of the observer. Bias Habit the worlds on repeat o People give the same answers when they’re uncertain. 4 Cost and benefits o Perceived costThe subject believes that there’s a cost or benefit to making a response. o Changing the benefits or costs of a decision influences choices made. Signal detection theory (TSD) Measures the decision making process o Bias o Assumes information detection is a decision. Assumes two processes: o Sensory process how well you can detect the noise. o Decision process subjective benefits Catch trials catch habitual responses. o Yes, sayers More false alarms o Nay sayers Vision Light and vision Visual acuity o The typical person can see around 20/20 vision, however, animals such as hawks and owls have eight times that ability. 5 Action shooter games are proven by research to improve attention and basic visual acuity. Basic process of sensation o Reception Detection by specialized receptors o Transduction Conversion into a neural signal o Coding Neural code of stimulus Coding with action potentials o Modality: type or quality of stimulus “law of specific nerve energies” states which neuron is active signals modality o intensity frequency of action potential Sensing light- visible light is a portion of the electro magnetic spectrum that we can see. o Light is a wave of energy. Wavelength Electromagnetic spectrum us the sliver of light waves visible to humans as a rainbow of colors from violet-blue to red. Acuity- high resolution at a point of focus Everything you’re not focused on blurs Retina- light sensitive tissues lining the back of the eyeball. The surface is composed of photoreceptor cells. Accommodation is how the eye maintains a clear image of the retina. Myopia- nearsightedness Hyperopia- farsightedness Reception Lens focuses images on the retina o Areas to know 6 Fovea- critical for high resolution vision Exclusively cones Site of most color detection Blind spot- A common spot where there are no receptors, and no detectors. Thus there is no vision. Photoreceptors- cones and rods o Cones-detect color, operate under normal day-light conditions, and allow focus on fine details. o Rods- become active in low-light condition/the night vision feature of your eyes. More sensative Receptive fields o An area that when presented with a necessary stimulus cause a cell to respond. o Receptive field for any cell=sum of inputs Color vision Receiving color o We perceive color because objects selectively absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect others. o Color perception corresponds to three types of cones Red (long) Blue (short Green (medium) o Red and blue make shades of purple o Red and green create shades of yellow o Blue and green create lighter blue/greens o All together they make white 7 In some cases, people are color deficient, in which one of the cone types is missing. (or two, but this is rare) o More common in men than women. Processing visual information The visual brain o Action potentials containing information encoded by retina travel to the brain along the optic nerve. o Half the optic nerves that leave the eye come from the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) that code information in the right visual field while the other half codes information in the left visual field. The nerve travels to the thalamus and then the signal is sent to the brain (area V1) Visual form agnosia o The inability to recognize objects by sight o Caused by damage to a person’s visual representation of objects. The dorsal and ventral visual streams are functionally distinct. o You can damage one and leave the other. 8
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