Psych Ch. 6
Psych Ch. 6 Psych 2010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Brady on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jerry Murphy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Psych Chapter 6 Book Notes Learning: 6.1 How Do We Learn? Learning: relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Three Types of Learning: Nonassociative Learning: Responding after repeated exposure to a single stimulus, or event o The simplest form of learning o Ex: hearing a fire alarm and look where the alarm is; hear a buzzing sound in the background and tune it out Associative Learning: Linking two stimuli, or events, that occur together o Associations develop through conditioning o EX: linking going to the dentist with being in pain; associate working with getting paid Observational Learning: Acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior o EX: Learning the steps to a new dance by watching a YouTube video; by watching other in person or in the media you learn good or bad habits The two most common forms of nonassociative learning are habituation and sensitization. Habituation: decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus o We tend to notice new things around us, if something is neither rewarding nor harmful, habituation leads us to ignore it Sensitization: An increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus o Stimuli that most often lead to sensitization are those that are threatening or painful SUMMING UP: Associative learning processes include classical and operant conditioning Kandel’s work on the aplysia has shown that habituation and sensitization occur through alteration in neurotransmitter release 6.2 How Do We Learn Predictive Associations? Classical conditioning: (Pavlovian conditioning) A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response o You learn that one even predicts another o EX: you learn that certain music plays during scary scenes in a movie, so now you feel anxious when you hear that music Unconditioned response (UR): A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex o EX: Salivation Unconditioned Stimulus (US): A stimulus that elicits a response such as a reflex, without any prior learning o EX: Food Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place o EX: Clicking of the metronome Conditioned Response (CR): A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned o EX: increased salivation Acquisition: the gradual formation of association between the conditioned unconditioned stimuli o EX: metronome and food Extinction: A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus o EX: metronome is presented many times without food, dog will learn that metronome is no longer good predictor for food Spontaneous recovery: A process in which a previously extinguished conditioned response reemerges after the presentation of the conditioned stimulus o Recovery is temporary, unless the conditioned stimulus is again paired with the unconditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization: Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response o Generalization is adaptive because in nature the CS is rarely experienced repeatedly in an identical way Stimulus discrimination: A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus o EX: dogs can learn to detect subtle differences in shades of gray or in tones of different frequencies RescorlaWagner model: A cognitive model of classical conditioning; it holds that the strength of the CSUS association is determined by the extent to which the unconditional stimulus is unexpected o Positive means the presence of something unexpected o Negative refers to the absence of something expected Phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation o EX: snakes, heights, dogs, insects, etc SUMMING UP: The neurotransmitter dopamine is released in the brain after positive prediction errors. Dopamine is no longer released when no surprise is associated with the presentation of the CS. 6.3 How Does Operant Conditioning Change Behavior? Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning): a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Law of Effect: Thorndike’s general theory of learning; Any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again Reinforcer: A stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated o EX: studying, eating, driving on the proper side of the road, etc. occurs because it has been reinforced Shaping: A process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior o EX: Trying to teach your dog to roll over. You initially reward the dog for any behavior that even slightly resembles rolling over, such as lying down. Once this behavior is established, you reinforce behaviors more selectively Primary reinforcers: most obvious reinforcers that are necessary for survival, such as food and water; satisfy biological needs Secondary reinforcers: Events or objects that serve as reinforcers but do not satisfy biological needs; such as money Positive reinforcement: The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated Negative reinforcement: The removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated o EX: When a rat is required to press a lever to turn off an electric shock, the pressing of the lever has been negatively reinforced o Take a pill to get rid of a headache o Close to the door to your room to shut out the noise Continuous Reinforcement: A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs Partial reinforcement: A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently o Variable Ratio schedule(VR): based on the number of times the behavior occurs; reinforced on every third or tenth occurrence o Fixed Interval schedule (FI): based on a specific unit of time; performed every minute or hour EX: Feeding a pet at a certain time every day will train them to be ready to eat every day at the same time o Fixed ratio Schedule (FR): predictable; occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain number of responses have been made EX: factory workers who are paid based on the number of objects they make o Variable Interval Schedule (VI): less predictable; occurs when reinforcement is provided after the passage of time, but the time is NOT regular EX: getting texts or emails from friends Partial reinforcement extinction effect: the greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement o Leaner can easily detect when reinforcement has stopped o Parents naturally follow this strategy in teaching behaviors to their children, as in toilet training Positive punishment: the administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behaviors returning o Often this is unpleasant o EX: receiving a spray of water and being yelled at are forms of positive punishment; receiving a speeding ticket Negative punishment: The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior’s recurring o EX: teen losing driving privileges for speeding is a negative punishment Behavior modification: The use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones o EX: people can be taught to be more productive at work to save energy Cognitive Map: A visual/spatial mental representation of an environment Latent learning: Learning that takes the place in the absence of reinforcement o A person learns something simply by observing it o EX: driving for the first time, most people do not need to be told to turn the wheel in order to turn the car SUMMING UP: Classical conditioning involves the learned associated between two events. By contrast, operant conditioning involves the learned association between a behavior and its consequences Reinforcement increases a behaviors likelihood of being repeated. Punishment reduces that likelihood. Positive reinforcement and positive punishment involve the administration of a stimulus. Negative reinforcement and negative punishment involve the removal of a stimulus Latent learning takes place without reinforcement. Latent learning may not influence behavior until a reinforce is introduced 6.4 How Does Watching Others Affect Learning? Modeling: The imitation of observed behavior Vicarious learning: learning the consequences of an action by watching other being rewarded or punished for performing the action Mirror neurons: neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action SUMMING UP: We tend to imitate models who are attractive, who have high status, who are similar to ourselves, and whom we admire Through vicarious learning, we learn about an action’s consequences. We are more likely to perform a behavior when a model has been rewarded for the behavior than when a model has been punished for the behavior Mirror neurons, which fire when a behavior is observed and performed, may be involved in learning about and predicting what others are thinking. Mirror neurons may also be involved in empathy, the emotional response of feeling what someone else is experiencing
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