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Western Art Week 5 Notes

by: THeller97

Western Art Week 5 Notes ART 225-02


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About this Document

These notes continue with Byzantine art, Islamic art, and Romanesque art.
Overview of Western Art
Pitluga, Kurt W
Class Notes
WesternArt, Art, ArtHistory
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by THeller97 on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
BYZANTINE ART Golden Age of the Emperor Justinian 527-565 ● Emperor is essentially christ represented on earth ● Ravenna, Italy ○ Capital of western empire ● San Vitale, Italy 526-547 ○ Plain exterior, lavish interior ○ Domed structure ○ Centralized plan ■ Dome over center of building much like pantheon ■ Symbolized control that the emperor had ■ “Basket capitols” ● Drilling into stone creating a basket texture ○ Apse ■ Area where altar is located ■ Mosaics commonly had golden backgrounds ■ 3 mosaics ● Image of Christ with youthful appearance ○ Wears purple robe to represent royalty of the emperor ● Just​ ian and Attendants, c.547 ○ Elongated figures ○ Flattened quality with no volume of body under robes ○ Justinian wears a purple robe and halo to symbolize divinity ○ Cross painted on soldiers’ shields ■ Chi-Ro ● ​ heodora and Attendants, c. 547 ○ She wears purple robes and has halo along with Justinian ○ Holds golden goblet for ceremony ○ Elaborate decoration of crown ○ Align herself with the Virgin Mary ● Hagia Sofia ○ Istanbul, Turkey ○ “Church of Holy Wisdom” ○ Biggest dome interior space in the world (Until rebuilding of New St. Peter’s) ■ Rises 183 ft. ■ 40 windows ● “Golden chain of heaven” ■ Supported by 4 main arches ■ Centralized plan ● Unlike pantheon, did not have rotunda ● “Pendentives” ○ Spherical triangles ○ Create circular opening between arches in dome ● Basket capitols to created pocketed designs ● Icon Painting ○ Greek for image ○ “Pantokrater” ■ Almighty or all powerful ○ Use gold leaf for backgrounds ○ Encaustic ■ Painting with hot wax ○ Egg tempera ■ Egg and paint powders 1453 - Conquest of Constantinople by Ottoman Turk Empire ● “Great Schism” ​ ● St. Basil’s Church Moscow, Russia ○ Designed for Ivan the Terrible ○ Onion domes CHAPTER 9: ISLAMIC ART PG.186-199 ● Islam is most monotheistic religion in the world ● Battle of Poitier, France 732 ○ Halted muslim incursion into northern europe ○ Bring architecture to environment ● Religion ○ Allah = God ■ Forbidden to depict Allah as a human ○ Muhammad ■ Prophet or messenger ○ Qur’an or Koran ■ Islamic bibble ○ Sunni ■ Believe legitimacy of original four caliphs ■ Majority ○ Shiites ■ Believe in legitimacy of Ali, the fourth caliph ■ Minority ● Calligraphy ○ “Beautiful writing” ○ Kufic script ■ First type of script developed ○ Used to write messages from Muhammad that he received from angel, Gabriel ● Hijra ○ Muhammad flees Mecca ○ Goes to Medina ■ City of the prophet ○ Assembles army and overthrows Mecca to destroy polytheistic ​ abbain K ■ Arabic for cube ● “Islam” ○ Submission to God ● “Muslim” ○ Those who submit ● Five pillars of Faith ○ Declaration of Faith ○ Prayer: five times a day ■ Friday is congregational day of prayer ○ Charity ■ Give 10% of what they earn, or give back in any other way ○ Ramadan ■ 9th month of the lunar calendar ■ Demonstration and loyalty to God ■ Fast of food, drink, and sex during daylight ○ Pilgrimage to Mecca-Saudi Arabia Umayyad Empire 661-749 ● Capital in Damascus, Syria ● First islamic architectural structure ● Creating emphasizing education in culture ● “Dome of the Rock” 687-692, Jerusalem ○ Koran ■ Abraham’s sacrifice of Issac ● Proves loyalty to God ○ Muhammad’s ascent to heaven ■ Muhammad usually had a blank face when in images ○ Located where Temple of Solomon was previously ○ Possibly inspired by San Vitale ○ Exterior mosaic replaced with glazed tiles in 15th century ● No animals or humans depicted within mosaic design ○ Plants and floral prints are common ○ Lavish design ■ Symbolize paradise for muslim culture ○ Arabesques ■ Flowing, curving lines Abbasid Empire 750-1258 ● Claimed to be descendant of Muhammad ○ Abbas ● Capital: ​Baghdad ○ “City of Peace” ● Arabic becomes official language of islamic people ● “Original Plan of Baghdad” ○ Circular city ○ Ruler’s palace located in very center of city ○ Huge emphasis on knowledge and education ■ Ancient translation into arabic ● ex.) Plato, mathematics, medicine ○ Home to​ “House of Wisdom” ● Empire spreads to Tunisia, Africa ○ “Great Mosque” 836-875 Kairouan, Tunisia ■ First mosque ■ All mosques have big open courtyard for public ● Sahn ■ Always facing Mecca when praying ■ Quibla Wall ● Always faces Mecca (Direction to pray in) ■ Mihrab ● Recession in Quibla wall ● Marks spot where Muhammad would originally prayer ■ Imam ● Person who was selected to lead on prayer on fridays ● Volunteer ● Will lead o​ inbar ○ Platform next to mihrab ■ Large domes (2) ● 1-marks entrance to mosque ○ Washing ritual to cleanse feet is performed ○ Hypostyle hall ● 2-marks where Mihrab is located ■ Minaret ● Oldest Prayer tower Ummyads in Spain 756-1031 ● Muslims kicked out of Spain - 1492 ● Abd-al-Rahman I ○ Escaped the slaughter of family by Abbasids in Cordoba ● “Great Mosques at Cordoba” , Spain ○ After muslims were expelled, christians built church in center ○ Elaborate Hypostyle Hall ■ Dual colored arches of islamic culture ■ Two tiers of arches to lift ceiling ○ Sahn ○ Horseshoe arch ○ Maqsura ■ Built by Caliph al-Hakam II ■ Elaborate design of arches and dome marking mihrab ■ Rich mosaic floral designs ○ Stone gille on Quibla wall ■ Great example of geometric arabesque ● Oriental Carpet ○ Floral designs ○ Loom ■ Warp (Vertical strings) ■ Weft (Horizontal strings) ○ Series of knots ○ Ply, or thickness, determined quality ○ “Funerary Carpet”​ 1540 ■ 35x18 ■ 25 million knots ■ 340 knots per sq in. ■ In Victoria & Albert Museum ○ Popular imports into western Europe and appeared in many paintings Ottoman Empire 1299-1922 ● Sided with germany for WWI ○ Germans lost war, so did Ottomans ■ Fall of empire ● Fall of Constantinople in 1453 ○ Sultan Mehmed II ● “Sinan the Great” 1491-1588 ○ Great engineer and architect of Ottoman Empire ○ “Mosque of Selim II” 1568-1575 Edirne, Turkey ■ Modeled after Hagia Sofia, but wanted a better structure ■ Had school, hospital, indoor marketplace, sahn ■ Centralized plan ■ Interior had many more windows and open space ■ Dome had elaborate mosaic work ● 197’ high, 108’ in diameter ○ Saz ■ Complex blossom art ● “Masjid-I Iman Complex” 1611-1638 Isfahan, Iran ○ ● Sasanian: “Palace of Shupur I ○ IWAN ■ Mosques in Iran typically have four to depict areas within the mosque ○ Use of large arch ○ Three sided vault space ○ Decorative use of calligraphy on dome with glazed tiles ○ Extremely complex use of art in domes ○ Madrasa ■ Islamic school ● Primarily religion taught CHAPTER 11: ROMANESQUE ART 1000-1100 PG. 220-234 ● Romanesque = Roman-like ● Revival of monumental stone architecture and stone sculpture ● Very experimental period ● Medieval Feudalism ○ Based on land ownership ○ King gives Lord pieces of land as king’s protection ■ Peasants word on Lord’s land ■ Sharecropping ○ Crenelations ■ Notch like projections on tops of towers in walls ■ Defensive feature ○ “Bayeux Tapestry” 1073-1083 ■ Bayeux cathedral, normandy ■ Deals with France’s invasion of England ■ Three principal characters ● King Edward ● Harold (noble) ● William the Conqueror ■ Technically an embroidery rather than tapestry ■ Harold take oath of loyalty to pass on throne to William once King Edward passes ■ Harold declares himself king ■ “Battle of Hastings” ● Harold killed by William ● Medieval “Monasticism” ○ One place where peasants could raise their social status ○ Monks built their own houses, farmed, made beer, wine, and champagne. ○ Monastery at Cluny, France ■ Large church, libraries, school ■ Destroyed ○ Cloister ■ Places for quiet retreat ​ ○ 12-13 centuries ○ Goods and ideas transferred over from muslims


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