Week 6 and 7 lecture notes
Week 6 and 7 lecture notes Hist 1010 - 003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Cook on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel F. Giblin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
ANCIENT GREECE Cultural advances were only possible because sea transport was faster and cheaper DARK AGE: depopulation, backwardness, and poverty Phoenician language consisted of first alphabet where symbols represent sounds Diet of bread and vegetables increased fertility Villages merged and became urban cities ACROPOLIS: highest point of the city, place of refuge AGORA: gathering place, center for municipal buildings, center of trade CHORA: villages and agriculture land surrounded and supported walled urban center THE DARK AGE (1150-800 BCE) THE ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-450 BCE) THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (450-323 BCE) THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD (323-30 BCE) Greek Hoplites/Phalanx (system of infantry fighting) Corinthian helmets: full protection, poor vision Breast Plate: protection, until it began to be produced in leather, it was not very malleable Greaves: calf covers, expensive so only the important people could afford them Thrusting Spear: iron tip on one end, bronze butt spike for backup Sword: weapon of last resort for this military system Hoplite shield: purely a Greek innovation, made of wood and covered in bronze, bowl shaped, strapped in, 13-16 lbs Success is in the system File is column, rank is horizontal Fight slow and in the summer (agricultural off season) Not a professional class of soldiers (farmers, free peasants, and middle or upper class citizens) TYRANNY: person who seized and held power in violation of the normal, political obligations of the community OLIGARCHY: elected elites (clique of privileged rulers) DEMOCRACY: rule by all Males HERODOTOS: wrote in prose, collected and sorted data in a system he called historia, studied geography and stories, wars between the Greeks and Persians MESSENIA: west of Sparta SPARTA: arts and trade, lined up as a military camp, ready to fight at any moment, feared the helot uprising CLASSIC GREEK PERIOD Begins with the defeat of the Persians TIREME: ruling the waves, Athenian Navy, 70 rowers, war ship, could reach 7 knots, lower class men meaning they can stay out at sea as long as they wanted REDERRICK: construction of persuasive argument as needed SOPHISTS: (Socrates) - Socratic Method: argumentative dialogue using probing questions to stimulate critical thinking ARISTOTLE: chosen by Phillip II for tutoring, collected and categorized a vast view of knowledge Slavery was prominent in Athens, significant portion of Attica, each family unit had at least one slave Athenian women were married as teenagers, had no formal education or political rights Husbands were involved in politics, well educated, head of the household, and so important that they slept in their own room Women were housebound unless they were visiting female relatives Phillip II had his own professional army Phillips son became “Alexander the Great” ALEXANDRIA: two harbors linking commerce, home to the first lighthouse (wonder of the ancient world) ALEXANDER THE GREAT Created an empire by age 30 Died at 32 so the empire went with him Started a campaign with Persia HELLENISTIC PERIOD Empire broke into three main kingdoms after the death of Alexander (his successor states) 1) Seleucid Kingdom 2) Ptolemaic 3) Antigone PELOPONNISIAN WAR Athens and Sparta Dragged for decades Sparta won but at the cost of destroying its own traditional social culture (i.e. no one really won) ROME Italy is a land of hills and mountains Mediterranean climate makes it ideal for many crops 1,000-600 BCE many urban cities emerged Rome offered refuge to many outsiders Agriculture was the central economy Heads of wealthy families had much land 753-507 BCE established a republic lead by a head of elders SENATE: aristocratic branch of roman government o Advisory council, increasingly made policy, nominated sons to take their place after them, served for life, political and military experience ASSEMBLY: democratic branch of roman government CONSULS: monarchial branch of roman government o Along with senate acted as a checks and balance system PATRICIANS: elite class PLEBIANS: commoners, refused to work or fight 12 TABLES: 450 BCE check on decisions made by the officials TRIBUNES: drawn from the non elite classes to balance and vote fairly PATRON: provided legal advice, physical protection, or loans of money but required client to repay with labor or loyalty FAMILY - Made of several generations including servants - PATERPHAMILIAS: oldest male member of the family - Roman women had no public role (history only has examples of elite women, has absolute control of the women - Women were treated as children, when they married, they were under the complete control of her husbands PATERPHAMILIAS, could not represent themselves in gov or own land Religion was very important - Had to keep deorum (peace between the gods and the roman state) - Performed ritual sacrifice the structure of Rome enhanced war - leaders only had one year in office so they tried to become a military legend and make money in that short time - HASTATSI and PRINCIPES - All men who owned a certain amount of land must serve, citizens were still paid - MANIPULAR LEGION: incredibly flexible, in a larger military system; backbone of military system for >500 years - COHORT LEGION: evolved version^ Military trained their soldiers based on (unlike Phalanx who didn’t need training)- VIRTUS: qualities of courage, manliness, strong character, valor DISCIPLINA: the means to control and channel the collective virtus of the soldiers against the enemy’s force - 264-51 BCE was a period of steady conquests: frequent wars and territorial expansion required soldiers to extend their campaigns meaning they could not return to their farms and the farms began to die out, and were sold LATIFUNDIA: “broad estates,” used cheap labor Expense grew, so did city populations and Rome began to take in a lot of slaves GAIUS MARIUS - Created the Marian reforms - 107 BCE organized an army to fight in Africa - removed property requirement for the military so that he could obtain more soldiers - promised land to those who fought for him - supplied his men with pay and equipment 88.31CE: a series of individuals commanded big armies Julius Caesar: powerful ruler Octavian: Julius’ adopted son, master manipulator - Military dictator, but didn’t call himself the emperor, called himself the Principe (“first among equals”) - Given the title Augustus Caesar in 27 BCE - Beginning of roman empire EQUITES: competent civil servants that helped run the empire, 2 ndto the senate in order of social class PAX ROMANA: 200 yr stability of rome Digest of Justinian (European law to this day): 530-533 CE, contains 50 volumes Maps began to show roads and cities (“all roads lead to Rome” because all of the roads did lead to Rome in the Empire, as shown on maps) 80% of the empire lived in villages or on secluded farms without more conquests, slaves became less plentiful and more expensive wealth was concentrated in the cities but dependent on rural laborers Cecily and Egypt imported grains China imported silk India and Arabia imported spices ROMANIZATION - Spread of Latin language and roman ways of life - Military officials, groups and some communities were granted citizenship for loyal service (passed on to the wives and children) - 212 CE all free male inhabitants of the empire were granted citizenship - better trade and faster military (thanks to roads) - AQUEDUCT: carries water from source to urban centers using only the force of gravity - Created concrete - Coins began to lose value so the Romans resorted back to a barter system - Reduced long distance commerce DIOCLETIAN 284-305 CE Pulled the empire back from destruction ruled for about 20 years died in his own bed (important because its not in battle and not in office) transformed roman state froze people into essential professions and trained their sons to do the same government regulated prices of items creating the need for a black market trade system after he resigned, people battled for the throne CONSTANTINE Milhian bridge 312 CE Said the Christian God helped him succeed Freedom of worship for all but gently pushed Christianity (whether it for religious reasons or unifying people we don’t know) QIN DYNASTY Shi Huangdi: first emperor - Abolished the rights for sons to inherit land - Code of law set punishment evenly throughout society The success of the Chinese caused the Northern Nomads to construct the Xiongnu confederacy (massive force of horseman rather than individual horseback nomads; all pastoralists so similar ways of fighting) HAN DYNASTY Takes place of Qin Fighting continued between the two groups Liu Bang: - Ruled as emperor of Gaozu and established Han Dynasty - Maintained institutions of senate and added a bureaucrat class - Used marriage to connect other countries Empress Lu Zhi: served as emperor over the weak emperors - When kids become emperor their mothers/grandmother can act as a chaperone until they are able to fully rule on their own - Played key role in guidance Emperor Wu: came to throne as a teen - Launched many military operations to expand north - Government formed monopolies on popular commodities - Adopted Confucianism but adjusted it to the current times Family was the fundamental unit. (including dead relatives) - Had a certain position based on gender, age, and relationship between family members - Parents control children even when they grow up - Women had no ambition to manage anything outside of the house and they submit to parents first, then husband, then son if the husband dies. They are always under someone’s control Hierarchy of the state mirrored the families - Multiple within the family Capital of Han: Chang’an - Ancient seat of power where Zhou and Qin emerged Warriors spent many months away from home, worried about the vulnerable wives and kids while they were away Had roads like Rome: helped promote the movement of goods SIOMA QIAN Father of history Developed throat harness so that the horses wouldn’t be choked while pulling carts. They could go faster and for longer periods of time. Made paper Promoted new military techniques Buddhism; MAHAYANA: “great vehicle” THERAVADA: “teaching of elders” - Did not accept the monks because their religion takes them away from the family units and required them not to have sex which hampered the continuation of the family unit JUDEA (Christianity) - Under direct roman rule - Different groups of interest - Lowest of the low (criminals) were crucified - Jews refused to accept Jesus as the messiah - Refusal to worship the emperor was disloyal ROME AND HAN CHINA Rose from small states; ruled neighbors Agriculture was the fundamental part of their wealth Brought conquered regions to unity Roads helped spread the culture into the surrounding countryside Urban centers possessed the most advantages Imperialism: expanding a countries power through military and diplomacy