New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PHC4101, week 6

by: Samantha Notetaker

PHC4101, week 6 PHC4101

Samantha Notetaker
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This covers the lectures for this week as well as chapters 9 and 10
Public Health Concepts
Deepthi Varma
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Public Health Concepts

Popular in Epidemiology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHC4101 at University of Florida taught by Deepthi Varma in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Public Health Concepts in Epidemiology at University of Florida.


Reviews for PHC4101, week 6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/30/16
1 PublicHealthConcepts Lecture Emerging Infectious Diseases and Public Health: Influenza Example There are LOADS of reasons public health is concerned about infectious diseases  Mortality and morbidity  People spreading diseases  Bioterrorism?!  Treat and Prevent! How are do new infections become a thing?  The environment  Traveling to other countries  Food   Health care facilities (sick people EVERYWHERE)  Insects (ew)  SEX and DRUGS Classification of pathogens Virus Bacteria Prions Helminths Parasites ***Check out different diseases caused by these pathogens INFLUENA – spread SUPER easily (especially in close proximity)  Has actually killed a bunch of people (like millions)  Very widespread epidemic  Pandemic – epidemic that has spread through many places in the world  Endemic – disease spreading at an average rate  Epidemic – disease spreading at accelerated rates H1N1 Influenza – 2009  Became super serious pretty quick  WHO even got involved Influenza Virus  RNA core, coat of proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase)  Influenza is typically seasonal (between fall and spring)  Death is generally more towards older people (over 65) and children under 2 Antigenic drift – small changes in RNA sequences Antigenic shift – bigger changes in the whole virus Symptoms  Fever  Headache  Cough  Sore throat  Myalgia (pain in muscles)  Malaise (general discomfort) 2  There are rapid tests – but they are not also super accurate  Most doctors can tell by the symptoms, but it can be easy to confuse it with another illness  Some influenza tests are better than others, but they may take longer and be more expensive $$ Treatment!  4 types of medication  Check out what the CDC says Role of Public Health with Influenza  Surveillance!  Influenza is reported to the CDC to keep track of how the flu is being spread or contained  They also keep track of illnesses similar to influenza  Keep it under control o Vaccinations o Antiviral drugs o Advising handwashing and good hygiene o Closing schools, cancelling big events Herd immunity – immunity for the community! This happens when some of the population has vaccines and others don’t, yet the portion that does provides protection to those that don’t Types of flu vaccines  Nasal  Intramuscular  Intradermal (new) Side note: Lots of influenza viruses come from animals Why don’t we have more H5N1 (bird flu)? – because of lack of human-human transaction Chapter 9: The “Conquest” of Infectious Disease There used to be lots of death due to epidemics  BUT NOW, we have clean water, garbage disposal places, immunizations, and better hygiene as well as nutrition. PLUS, antibiotics were discovered! Infectious Agents Cause epidemic Bacteria Viruses Parasites diseases “Koch’s postulates” – 4 rules on page 134 of the book Bacteria that causes…  Vibrio cholera – cholera  Streptococci – strep throat and scarlet fever  Pneumococci – pneumonia  Staphylococci – wound infections  Spirochete – Syphilis Bacteria – single-celled organisms that can grow and multiply outside the body Viruses – incomplete cells, can’t reproduce by themselves Protozoa – single-celled organisms that live in humans as parasites 3 Means of Transmission Respiratory infections  Through the air (coughing and sneezing)  Also by touching stuff Gastrointestinal infections  Fecal-oral track  Poor hygiene page 136  Contaminated drinking water Different diseases are contagious are different times during an illness *Some diseases can even be spread when the host doesn’t even have any symptoms  Ex: Mary Mallon Chain of Infection  How a disease is spread from person to person List of spreading links: 1. Pathogen – bacteria, virus, or parasite 2. Reservoir – where a pathogen makes a home and replicates 3. Method transmission – how a pathogen travels 4. Susceptible host – even if a pathogen gets in, some people are immune Control the spread of disease by breaking the c-h-a-i-n!  Kill pathogen – get rid of reservoir (such as filtering water) – quarantine – immunization Disease surveillance is important to be able to track a disease, contain it, and possibly immunize people from it Contact tracing can be helpful in the control of sexually transmitted diseases  Surveillance and quarantine were major components when it came to managing SARS (sever acute respiratory syndrome) o 8438 people infected, 30 countries, and 812 dead  But don’t worry, its gone now Rabies  Deadly disease that affects the nervous system Luckily, it’s pretty rare for humans  Since dogs are the most likely animal to bite a human, they are required to be given a rabies vaccine  In the case a human is bitten by an animal that has rabies, there are a series of vaccines that the person can receive to help protect them The control of rabies is very important because of how deadly it is and how fast it can kill someone Ex: rabid puppy. Page 141 Smallpox, Measles, and Polio These diseases have only humans as reservoir THEREFORE: immunizations for these diseases are super important  Immunizations actually began with smallpox  Although smallpox is not seen anymore, there have been worries about other countries using smallpox samples for bioterrorism  Polio is another disease that a vaccine has been extremely helpful with and now only exists in less than a handful of countries o it continues to exist because some polio cases are “invisible”  Measles – another viral disease that a vaccine has helped with but not fully gotten rid of 4 o Later found out a booster shot was needed when measles started showing up in high school and college kids o Also, many people were not being immunized early enough  Malaria – spread through mosquitoes, but on a humans are a reservoir o Now, one of the most fatal infectious diseases in the world Fear of Vaccinations Vaccines have many benefits HOWEVER, some are still skeptical because of rumor of vaccines being laced with other infectious or deadly diseases – just like the Nigerians in the example on page 143 Many parents became concerned with vaccinating their children and due to that the Institute of Medicine reviewed the evidence  It was found that there was no link between vaccines and SIDS or autism  Many parents in wealthier communities rely on herd immunity (refer to earlier notes) to protect their unvaccinated children Another problem is that some pharmaceutical companies don’t want to develop vaccines anymore because the patient only pays a low cost to receive it Chapter 10: The Resurgence of Infectious Disease People thought infectious disease was under control until…. AIDS The Biomedical Basis of AIDS AIDS is caused by HIV  HIV is unusual because it uses RNA for replication rather than DNA making it a retrovirus  HIV targets the T4 white blood cell (which are vital to the immune system), uses it to make copies of itself, and then kills it  Eventually with all the T cells dying they can’t be reproduced quick enough  A fast and inexpensive HIV test was introduced in 1985 o The test is used for diagnosing, monitoring, and screening donated blood  HIV used to be most common for male homosexual relations, but is now increasingly found in heterosexual relationships HIV can also be spread through  sharing of needles  in utero  sexual intercourse  contact with blood on open wound There are drugs that can help with the symptoms and progression, but no cure  The hope is to one day have a vaccine available  Right now, the best way to keep AIDS contained is through prevention Other Emerging Viruses Ebola  Fever and severe bleeding from multiple bodily openings  It infects humans and monkeys  Definitely fatal 5  Hundreds of people contracted the disease and about 90% of them died Another virus to have an outbreak was monkey pox, but it didn’t kill anyone  However, this outbreak made people think twice about exotic animals Hanta virus  Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)  Responsible for kidney disease of thousands of U.S. soldiers during the Korean war West Nile virus  Inflammation of the brain  This disease was killing humans, and it was later found it was also killing birds Public health professionals try to educate people on how they can fight viruses ***Find Examples on pages 156-157 Influenza Discussed in earlier section Refer to pages 158-160 for extra information New Bacterial Threats  Legionnaires’ disease (old but is now becoming more common)  Lyme disease (same as above)  Strep throat (has become increasingly common)  E. coli (normally present in human digestive tract. Now, found in hamburgers and has killed children through kidney failure) Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics (which is why it is super important to use them properly) -Salmonella and campylobacter cause millions of food-borne illnesses in the U.S. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)  Major problem in hospitals, nursing homes, and burn centers Healthcare associated infections = 99,000 deaths annually and millions of dollars Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) Tuberculosis = spread through air juice Leading cause of death for infectious diseases  Tuberculosis is tested through a skin test  Active tuberculosis builds up bacteria in the lungs *cough*cough*  Super important to catch early and prevent spreading (since it spreads pretty easily)  People with tuberculosis can be prevented from traveling  Drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis began to appear around the world in the 1990s So basically the human race is in a constant war with microbes. And microbes are winning. Prions - Proteins with no genetic material - Spongy brain.. Examples on page 167 6 Public Health response to Emerging Infections The “aha!” moment for the Institute of Medicine = many infectious diseases are caused by animals! Diseases are an international problem = global surveillance is super important The Institute of Medicine also wants to reduce the consumption of inappropriate antibiotics, develop new vaccines ad drugs, and help find better measures for vector (bug) spread diseases Public Health and the Threat of Bioterrorism Let’s go back to the rumor about other countries holding the smallpox virus over our heads Anthrax attacks from 2001 anyone? Obviously, bioterrorism is a real threat and one the public needs to be aware of Infectious diseases are real and pretty bad!


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.