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Chapter 3 principles of Biology Organic molecules

by: Tristen Griffith

Chapter 3 principles of Biology Organic molecules Bio 103

Marketplace > Alabama A&M University > Biology > Bio 103 > Chapter 3 principles of Biology Organic molecules
Tristen Griffith
Alabama A&M University

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organic molecules
Principles of Biology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tristen Griffith on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 103 at Alabama A&M University taught by Dr.Famer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Alabama A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 3 Organic Compound Friday, September 30, 2016 9:16 PM Organic Compound: Carbon covalently bonded to Hydrogen or another Carbon includes macro molecules and their sub units Unique Properties of Carbon:  Carbon has 4 valence electrons  Carbon Carbon bonds are extremely strong  Carbon atoms can form single, double, and triple bonds  There is freedom of rotation around a C-C single bond o This allows for more variety and flexibility  4 covalent bonds can form in different planes  Bonds with more elements than any other element on the periodic table o Allows for variety Hydro-Carbon: organic compounds consisting of only C and H o They're the backbones of everything o They can form a branched or unbranched Isomers  Isomers have the same components but their linked differently  Same molecular compound but different shape and therefore different structure and function o Usually only one isomer is active  3 types of Isomers: 1. Structural Isomers: differ in positioning of the atoms 1 Geometric Isomer: differ in positioning of groups (one side vs the other) 1 Enantiomers: mirror image Functional Groups  Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules  Hydrocarbons o They are uncharged, non-polar, insoluable, cluster  Replacing a hydrogen with a functional group changes the characteristics of organic molecules o Polar ionic funtional groups are hydrophilic  Properties of Macro molecules are largely due to functional groups Different Common Groups  Methyl group CH :3non polar hydrocarbon  Hydroxyl Groups OH: polar hydrocarbon  Carbonyl Group C=O: a carbon double bonded to Oxygen  Carboxyl groups COOH: Carbon double bonded to O bonded to a hydroxyl group o When ionized becomes COO - o Essential to proteins  Amino Group NH 2:components of both amino acids and nucleic acid o When ionized becomes NH +  Phosphate Groups PO H Important in nucleic acids lipids enzyme 4 2: reactions  Sulphurhydryl SH: important to chemical properties of proteins


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