PHL 3000 Week One Notes: Sep. 2
PHL 3000 Week One Notes: Sep. 2 PHL 3000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Cochran on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 3000 at Wright State University taught by Dr. Scott Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Philosophy at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
September 2, 2016 Plato: ● Wrote dialogues ○ Early (Socratic) ○ Middle ○ Late ■ The Middle and Late Dialogues are known as Platonic Socrates (The Apology) ● Never wrote any texts ● Philosophy is not a subject matter, like biology, math, etc, but a way of life. ○ Philos (love) + sophia (wisdom) = Philosophy (love of wisdom) ● Fully committed to the truth ● He “goes where the arguments take him” ● Applies to all subjects ● Sought the true nature of, or knowledge of: ○ The Most Important Things in Life** ■ Is it… ● Justice ● Truth ● Beauty ● Right and Wrong ● Good and Bad *Asked powerful people who professed to know The Most Important Things in Life He ended up embarrassing them ➔ The Oracle at Delphi: ◆ Known trickster ● For hubris (over confident) ◆ Was asked, “Is anyone wiser than Socrates?” ● Response: “No, none are wiser. ○ Socrates: “How can I be wisest when I know nothing?” Socrates’s Mission from the gods: ● Going to find one wiser than me 1. Politicians 2. Poets (Artist) 3. Craftsmen ● Socrates questions the Politicians: ○ Under questioning, it was shown that they do not know ■ They have no particular knowledge except flattery ● Socrates questions the Poets: ○ Poets have an ability ○ Cannot explain to others how to gain ability ○ Believe ability gives them knowledge of Most Important Things. ● Socrates questions the Craftsmen: ○ Have an ability, plus they can explain how ○ But, they think they also know about the Most Important Things Question: Are they all equally wise, or is Socrates in fact wiser, why? Spectrum of Knowledge: The Official Charges 1. Socrates corrupts the youth of Athens 2. Socrates does not believe in gods (He is an atheist) 3. Socrates creates new gods ** 2 and 3 contradict each others Was Socrates an atheist? ● Socrates did have very unique views about the gods: ○ Socrates’s view: The gods are good. We should follow them because they are right, correct, perfect, and worth following. ○ Popular view: The Gods are powerful. Follow because you do not want to be hurt. ● Socrates believed the gods spoke directly to him ○ Didn’t tell him what to do ○ Told him to avoid wrong ○ Beginning of soul? Did Socrates corrupt the youth? A. Was he a sophist? a. Paid teacher i. 1.5 years salary b. Could support or destroy any position c. Concluded: No truth, only power d. But, he wasn’t one B. Socrates’s Method a. Elenchus i. Ask a professed expert to define a term in their expertise. 1. Ask a series of questions, intending to show this definition contradicts something else the person believes C. Socrates would never intentionally corrupt those around him a. Corrupt people are dangerous people b. Is it reasonable to believe I alone corrupt? c. Concludes: That if he corrupts, he should be corrected, not punished Sentencing Phase ● They suggest death ● They expected Socrates to offer a fine or expulsion ● A series of feast to celebrate Socrates Was Socrates Good for Athens? ● Gadfly Analogy ○ Puts ignorance directly in front of your face ○ He “benefits” people by publicly showing them their ignorance and hypocrisy Socrates on the Good ● The unexamined life is not worth living ○ Good for you requires you to know what goodness is ○ If I know X is good, then I will X. ■ What is good for you is being morally good ■ What is bad for you is being morally bad ○ Aiming at your own perfection
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