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Mass Media: Chapter 7 (Radio)

by: Heidi Schoettle

Mass Media: Chapter 7 (Radio) MASS110

Heidi Schoettle
Minnesota State University, Mankato
GPA 3.91

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 7 in our textbook.
Introduction to Mass Media
Shane Frederik
Class Notes
Communications, radio
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Schoettle on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MASS110 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Shane Frederik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Media in Mass Media Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Intro to Mass Media Shane Frederick, Fall 2016 Table of Contents Red: important terms Green: other important information Purple: names of important people Chapter 7 (Radio)  Radio: communication through the use of radio waves o Person to person and mass communication  Radio wave technology is used in everything from TV to cell phones  Invented by Guglielmo Marconi o Duplicated Heinrich Hertz’s experiments o Essentially combined ideas and experiments of other people  Long distance electronic communication existed since the middle of the 19 th century o Telegraph o Cables across the Atlantic o Telephone in 1870  Early radios acted as devices for naval ships to communicate with other ships and land stations  1906, Reginald Fessenden initiated the first radio transmission of the human voice  1909, pay-per-play phonograph service was invented  Amateur radio operators began to quickly crowd the airwaves broadcasting messages o By 1912, the government had to step in o Required licenses and limited broadcast ranges o Gave president the power to shut down all stations  1916, Lee de Forest set up an experimental radio station in NYC with nightly broadcasts  After WWI, many stations developed regular programming that included o Religious sermons, sports, and news  Radio had a large potential as a medium for drama  Businesses first put radio’s commercial applications to use  Emergence of networks: o NBC  RED and BLUE stations o CBS  Variety shows became popular  News, educational programs, and talk programs arose in the 1930’s  Radio Act of 1927 established the FRC to oversee the regulation of the airwaves o Allowed 40 high powered channels to be reserved o 600 other channels had to share the rest of the frequencies  Golden Age of Radio: 1930-1950  Mutual Broadcasting began in 1934 to compete with NBC and CBS which crated 4 national networks  Soap operas emerged on the air  By the late 30’s radio was more popular than newspapers o It could evoke stronger emotional responses from listeners  Radio reporting rose as a career o Radio news during WWII  Communications Act of 1934 created the Federal Communications Commission o Limited stations to 50,000 watts of broadcasting power o Resulted in NBC selling its BLUE network which turned into ABC  Fairness Doctrine of 1949 o If broadcasters editorialized in favor of a position on a particular issue, they had to give equal time to the other positions  1940s brought TV o Diminished radio’s unique offerings o The Golden Age was doomed, but radio was not  Radio began to focus on playing only music o Arrival of the Top 40 and Black Disc Jockeys o Emergence of AM/FM radio  FM was more popular, but AM drew in more profits  To balance this out, advertisers began to market heavily to FM audiences and stations began tightening up their playlists o Growth of Public Radio  Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 o Corporation for Public Broadcasting was in charge of generating funding for public TV and radio outlets  During the recession, some stations initiated local marketing agreements to share facilities and resources o Empowered by the Telecommunications Act of 1996  Radio Station Formats o Evolution of radio station formats were propelled by the development of new music types o Modern formats target narrow defined audiences with predictable tastes and habits o Top radio formats  Country  News/Talk/Information  Adult Contemporary  Individuals over 30  Pop Contemporary Hits  Top 40 orientation  Draw on country, rock and urban  Ranked first among teens  Classic Rock  Rock singles from the 70s and 80s  Urban Contemporary  Mainly black artists  Soul, hip hop, and R+B  Mexican Regional  Spanish language music  Nostalgia  Reflects tastes of aging listeners  Radio’s Impact on Culture o Radio has the potential to reach anyone o Radio news in the 30s and 40s brought the emotional impact of traumatic events home  Gave the nation a sense of unity o Radio encouraged the growth of national pop music stars o The radio brought regional sounds to wider audiences o Rise in popularity of AM talk radio after the repeal of the Fairness Doctrine in 1987 o The need to generate revenue places practical limits on what radio personalities can say on the air  Radios’ New Future o Evolution  Satellite radio  HD radio  Internet radio and podcasting  Internet radio  Podcasting o Radio’s flexibility as a medium has allowed it to adjust to the fluctuations of audience tastes and markets o Satellite radio is a subscription based service, while HD radio is provided at no cost by current radio providers o Internet radio and podcasting have allowed many new programs and stations to low broadcast at low cost


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