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Chapter 3 Notes

by: Autumn Wetzel

Chapter 3 Notes CCJ 4450

Autumn Wetzel
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About this Document

These notes are for Chapter 3
Leadership and Management in Criminal Justice
Dr. Shawn Keller
Class Notes
Criminal Justice, leadership and management




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Wetzel on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 3 Leadership  Leader’s exert influence on and motivate followers to act in certain ways.  Effective leaders focus on the group’s energy and help members function in such a way  that the police department is able to accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives. Influence: is manifest in one’s ability to affect the character and actions of others. Influence is a  major process, function, or activity in the leadership role. Follower behavior tends to reinforce,  diminish, or extinguish leadership.  Power: the ability of a leader to influence other human beings in such a way as to produce a  particular behavior. Power is the capacity to command and to get others to do what the leader  wants done, when and how the leader wants it done.  Authority: is the right to act or cause others to act in an effort to accomplish the organizations  mission. Laws, policies, procedures, rules, and regulations control the delegation of authority.  Reciprocal response: there is a functional relationship between leaders and followers. Each  party to the transaction reacts not just to the other person but to the total situation that he or she  helped to create.  Zone of acceptance: this zone or area reflects the exercise of formal authority that subordinates  voluntarily accept as legitimate. It represents follower­imposed limitations on the power and  authority of superiors.  Functional Leadership  Every act of leadership consists of two elements 1. Initiation by a leader 2. Execution by followers   For our purpose, leadership can be defined as an interaction goal­oriented process  through which individual human beings are induced to follow someone and to receive  psychosocial satisfaction from willingly dong what that person wants them to do.  Police Administrators as Leaders 1. Formulate and refine the department’s mission, goals, and objectives. This should be  done periodically rather than after a significant event has occurred forcing a change that  meets societal needs. 2. Fulfill the department’s mission through goal­oriented and proactive management.  Reactive management has long plagued the police field and has proven to be detrimental.  3. Motivate police personnel to invest time, energy, effort, and expertise when engaged in  job related activities. 4. Make police work a fundamentally rewarding and productive profession, this can be done through job enrichment or job enlargements.  5. Set a moral, ethical, and professional tone for the organization.  6. Use power and authority to help employees become more efficient, effective, and  productive. 7. Create a working environment in which police officers willingly accomplish tasks.  8. Reward people as a matter of continuous and constant practice. 9. Maximize input from every level of the organization. 10. Above all communicate constantly and with effectiveness.  Managerial Leadership Managerial leaders make an effort to identify and understand the needs of subordinates  and to mesh them with those of the organizations.  1.   Task­oriented needs: are work centered and directly related to defining goals,  making policy, building programs, establishing process, and creating  organizations based on the efficient division of labor. 2.   People­oriented needs: are employee centered and related to improving  interpersonal relations, facilitating communication, motivation personnel,  providing support, generating morale through meaningful participation, and  resolving destructive conflict.  Researchers have identified the following major knowledge areas and leadership skills  associated with good management. Knowledge Areas: Leadership Skills: 1. Organization theory (workflow) 1. Conceptual skills 2. Industrial engineering (job) 2. Human Skills 3. Behavior science (attitudes) 3. Technical Skills   Conceptual skills: are used to organize and integrate experience. They involve the  ability to comprehend and ascribe meaning to bits and pieces of information as they are  converted into comprehensive thought.   Human skills: involve those aspects of behavior and/or personality that influence the  individual’s ability to interact in a positive way with other persons in the organizations.   Technical skills: utilized by police personnel vary depending on the level they have  attained within the organization. Theories of Leadership The conceptual approaches used to study leadership are ordinarily grouped into two basic categories: universal theories, and situational theories.  1. Universal theories: search for an explanation of leadership unrelated to follower  behavior or the social environment within which it develops.  2. Situational theories: tend to place undue emphasis on contingency variables in  an effort to explain the emergence of leaders in particular sets of circumstance.   Gary Dessler contends that there are at least four components in effective management  leadership: 1. Congruent leader style 2. Meaningful participation 3. People­oriented approach 4. Positive personal traits Trait Theory  Trait theory is based on the concept that good leaders always have certain physical,  mental, and characteristics traits that poor leaders do not possess.   Those who worked to refine trait theory and apply it to police administration were  confident that adequate leadership could be obtained through a simple two­step process.  1. Intelligence 2. Experience 3. Originality 4. Receptiveness 5. Teaching ability  6. Personality 7. Knowledge of human behavior 8. Courage 9. Tenacity 10. Sense of justice and fair play   According to the profile, effective leaders exhibit these habits: 1. Strong need to assume responsibility and complete tasks 2. Vitality and perseverance in pursuit of goals 3. Inventiveness in problem solving  4. Drive to exercise initiative in social situation 5. Self­assurance and sense of personal individuality 6. Willingness to accept consequences for their actions 7. Skills in coping with interpersonal stress 8. Patience when dealing with uncertainty and aggravation 9. Skills to influence the behavior of other people 10. Ability to organize a cohesive group  Leadership Styles 1. Autocratic Leadership: prefer to make decisions and give orders rather than to invite  group participation. Loyalty, acquiescence, and obedience are rewarded. This type of  police management stifles the development of leadership ability subordinates because  they are rarely allowed to make meaningful independent decisions.  2. Democratic Leadership: is people oriented. Create administrative environments in  which they consult with and draw ides from their personnel. In crises requiring a highly  structured response, this style might prove to be too time consuming or awkward to be  effective.  3. Laissez­faire Leadership: represents a hands­off approach to management in complex  organizations. The organization runs itself with little or no input from management.  Managerial Grid Is used as a diagnostic to help individual managers assess their own leadership style. The five basic managerial leadership styles are: 1. (1, 1) Impoverished Management: People are hired, placed in a job, and left  alone. They are out of it and seem to be lost among their people rather than  actively managing them.  2. (9, 1) Task Oriented Management: The leader exhibits a very strong interest in  productivity and almost no concern for employee needs or morale. The 9, 1  position represents an autocratic management style in which the end justifies the  means and the exploitation of personnel becomes the rule, rather than the  exception.  3. (1, 9) Country Club Management: Leaders are overly concerned with creating  and maintaining a friendly atmosphere. Managers exhibit a low functional  concern for productivity. 4. (5, 5) Middle of the Road Management: behavior reflects an intermediate level  of interest in productivity and a modest concern for subordinates. The manager  survival often depends on creating and maintaining a state of equilibrium.  Believes that most people are practical and will normally put forth some effort  based on self­interest. 5. (9, 9) Team Management: managers rate high in terms of their concern for both  productivity and personnel. There is an emphasis on meaningful participation.  Situational Leadership Approach Attempt to explain effective managerial leadership in terms of the interaction/influence  system. It utilizes contingency variables to explain leader behavior. They are those factors within  situations or followers that determine the style of management leadership most likely to  be effective in a given set of circumstances.  An accurate diagnosis in a given situation requires police administrators to examine four  extremely important areas: 1. Managerial Characteristics: Leader behavior in a given situation depends on the forces or personal characteristics of the individual manager. 2. Subordinate Characteristics: Before managers adopt a particular leadership  style, they assess intuitively the personal characteristics and behavioral patterns of others within the work group. 3. Work­group Structure: The truly effective managerial leader is flexible when it  comes to dealing with the collective needs of the groups.  4. Organizational factors: The complexity of the task, the size of the organization,  the work group’s interaction patter, and the reward system help determine the  most appropriate leadership style.  Contingency management There are three kinds of leadership situations: High control­ a predictable environment Moderate control­ presents the leader with diverse problems Low control­ these situations can breed organizational disarray  Path­Goal leadership Path­goal theorists have identified four basic leadership styles: Achievement­oriented: emphasis on excellence and an expectation that subordinates will  perform at the highest level. Instrumental: emphasizes control through rules and regulations/ Supportive: attention is paid the police dimension. Participative: share information, seek input and allow a meaningful role in the decision­ making process.  Management Systems  The management style characterizing leadership and arranged on a continuum portraying  a style from authoritarian to participative  System 1­ exploitive authoritative  System 2­ benevolent authoritative  System 3­ consultative  System 4­ participative group  Transformational Leadership  Focuses on building commitment and creating working relationships that allow task  accomplishment.  Organizational goals and wants are dominant and person needs are secondary.  High expectations challenge and empower employees and goal attainment becomes a  reality.  Focus is on the positive treatment of officers through motivation that results in  commitment.  The Transactional Leadership Style  Techniques used by this style range from rewarding officers to discipline.  Tasks are assigned and successful task accomplishment results in rewards.  Rules and regulations prevail and are in abundance everything is put in writing.  Leaders monitor officer activity closely looking for error and mistakes.  This technique should be used selectively and then in combination with transformational  techniques.  Level Five Leadership The highest level of executive capabilities  Characteristics 1. Quiet, reserved, shy, gracious, mild­mannered, and understanding. 2. Ambitious, but puts the needs of the organization first. 3. Modest, self­effacing, and driven 4.  Driven by the need to produce substantial results.  5. Set up successors for effectiveness Level five leaders use the window and the mirror  These leaders attribute their success to luck or factors outside their control while taking  responsibility for their failures.  They take stock of their problems by looking within the organization while maintaining  humbleness in times of success.   This method helps leaders to focus logically on their organizational troubles.  They have faith that the organization will prevail when faced with complicated  circumstances  They believe that people can become level 5 leaders by focusing on the needs of the  organization. 


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