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CLAS 202 - Week 3 Notes

by: Alex Tucker

CLAS 202 - Week 3 Notes CLAS 202

Alex Tucker

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Week 3 Notes
Roman Life & Culture
Jaeger M
Class Notes
Magistracies, ScipioEpitaphs
25 ?




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jaeger M in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Roman Life & Culture in Classical Studies at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Magistracies (Day 6) 4/11/16 - A Free Republic - From US Constitution (Section 2) - No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of 25 years, & has been a citizen of the US - Age of 30 for Senate - Term limitations - Amendment XXII (22) Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951: No person shall be elected to office of the President more than 2x - Regal Rome - King - Military - Civic - Religious - Patres (Senate, head of leading clans) - Became patrician clans - Plebeians - Liberi iam hinc populi Romani … - “My task from now on will be to trace the history in peace and war of a free nation, governed by annually elected officers of state and subject not to the caprice of individual men, but to the overriding authority of law.” (Livy 2.1.1) - The mark of a free people: annually elected officers (magistrates) - Cursus honorum: sequence of offices - Marcus Porcius Cato - 234 – 149 BCE - plebeian clan from Tusculum - first step: minor civil offices / military tribunate - 218 BCE, Hannibalic War Began - military tribune - under M. Claudius Marcellus at Syracuse in 213 BCE onwards - Siege of Syracuse - Famous casualty - Quaestor (financial officer) - Took magistrate’s place if he was incapacitated abroad - Managed budget; had some judicial / military duties - Assigned province by lot, but a magistrate could request a particular individual - A quaestor chosen was (ideally) loyal to magistrate for life Magistracies (Day 6) 4/11/16 - M. Porcius Cato = Quaestor 204 BCE - Under P. Cornelius Scipio (probably NOT Scipio’s choice) - M. Tullius Cicero = Quaestor in Sicily in 75 BCE - Cicero as Quaestor - Well-liked - 70 BCE, asked to advocate against former governor, G. Verres - speeches that resulted made Cicero’s reputation - An aside: The Verrines - G. Verres for extortion - 7 speeches; split into 2 sets - Verres went into exile after 1 set (2 speeches) - 2 ndset (5) were never delivered - Quaestor - 2, at first appointed by consuls; later elected - more added as # of provinces grew - 20 in late republic - Age: 27 – 30, 2 year term - Ex-quaestors eligible for Senate - Aediles - Started as 2 subordinates of tribunes of plebs - Job = supervise temples & cults of plebeians - Added 2 due to election from patricians in 367 (curule aediles) - Got curule chair; but being an adile came w/ great responsibility - M. Porcius Cato = Aedile 199 BCE - Patronage of the urban plebs - Cura Urbis = responsibility for fabric of city (public buildings …) - Cura annonae = responsibility for grain supply - Cura ludorum sollemnium = responsibility for ritual games - Praetor - Had imperium, only less than consuls - In charge when consuls were away - Heard cases of law - City cases = praetor urbanus - Foreigner cases = praetor peregrinus - M. Porcius Cato = Praetor 198 BCE - Origins of the Praetor - Originally 2, originally eponymous heads of state - Were later called consuls; third added Magistracies (Day 6) 4/11/16 - Consuls - 2 elected annually by centuriate assembly - min. age = 42 - elected at meeting of assembly called by consul, or dictator - regal imperium: power of a consul was that of a king - M. Porcius Cato = Consul 195 BCE - Consul Limitations - Term limited to 1 year - Colleague could veto - Mark of free people = annually elected officials - Mark of a free people - Election - Term limitation - Plurality - Imperium - Power to command & punish - In city, subject to provocation (appeal) - In field, unrestricted - Consuls alternated fasces - Monthly in city - Daily in field, when axes were added - Censors - Every 5 years, for a lustrum - Elected by centuriate assembly - Reviewed Senate. Removed unfit - Cato = Censor in 184 BCE - Dictator - Senate would pass a resolution asking consuls to appoint a dictator. - 6 month term (or duration of emergency) - nominated by magistrate w/ imperium after authorization by Senate - task = command army, hold elections, deal w/ specific problem - 24 lictors (fasces w/ axes always) - Master of Horse was subordinate - Other magistrates remained in office, but subordinate to dicator - Dictators dealt w/ task for which they were appointed, then resigned Magistracies (Day 6) 4/11/16 - Cincinnatus: dictator for 16 days - What is wrong w/ G. Iulius Caesar being named Dictator perpetuus? “Dictator in perpetuity - Cato in Retirement - Farmer, historian, zestful litigator - Senate gadfly until 149 BCE - Pontifex Maximus, “Greatest bridge-maker” - Took over religious aspect of kingship - Assemblies (comitia) - Comitia curiata - Comitia centuriata - Comitia tribute - Concilium plebis - Comitia Curiata - 30 curiae, 10 each from ancient clan tribes - Tities, Ramnes, Luceris - Presiding official consul, praetor, or for religious purposes, the pontifex maximus - w/ auspices - people not present; in republican times each curia was represented by a lictor - passed lex curiata confirming imperium of magistrates & power of lower officers - under pontifex maximus, they confirmed adoptions & wills - Comitia Centuriata - Citizens assembled in arms - Based on property qualifications - Said by Livy to have originated in census held by Servius Tullius (prob. wrong) - Function: enact laws, elect senior magistrates, declare war / peace, pass death penalty on Romans Equites 18 First Class (40 seniores / 40 iuniores) 80 Second Class 20 Third Class 20 Fourth Class 20 Fifth Class 30 Four centuries of musicians, artisans, one unarmed century of capiti 5 ----- censi & proletarii Total Magistracies (Day 6) 4/11/16 193 - Voting Order - By class & division st - Each group divided by age (seniors vote 1 ) - Not secret until ~ 137 BCE - Comitia Tributa - Assembly of the tribes, local divisions of Roman territory - 35 tribes - 4 urban, 31 rural - Concilium Plebis - Open to Plebeians, not patricians - Elected tribune of plebs - Majority of laws were proposed by tribunes of plebs; measures (called plebiscita) had validity of leges (laws) after 287 BCE - Frequent judgements, especially before institution of courts - How to Vote - First a contio, then citizens asked to disperse into groups; then each walked across a gangway; were asked vote by magistrate & mark was put by name - Between 139 – 107 BCE, series of laws brought about a secret ballot - V assent (vti rogas); A for dissent (antiquo) - Judicial: L for libero; C condemn - For positions, write-in (literacy???) - Cato the Younger said to have rejected ballots w/ his name in same hand - Dropped into urn (cista); guards there; handed over to counters Scipio Epitaphs (Day 7) 4/13/16 - Roman Republican Values - City = sacred place - Scipio Epitaphs - Polybius on Roman Funerals - The Pomerium - Sacred, plowed at city’s founding - Burials = outside it - Guarded by army - Temples to some gods were inside; others outside - Dates - 509 BCE = 1 year of Republic - 300 – 150 BCE = Scipio Epitaphs - Polybius wrote after 167 BCE - Livy wrote 30 BCE – 17 CE - Scipio Epitaphs - Found near the Porta Capena - Along the Via Appia - Paved in 312 BCE by Appius Claudius Caecus “the blind” - Tomb of the Scipios - Possibly old stone quarry - 18 places for sarcophagi - room for maybe twice that many - at intersection of crossroads joining Via Appia & Via Latina - main façade faced crossroad - famous in antiquity - Scipios were unusual for their time in that they buried dead instead of cremation - Tusculan Disputations 1.13 - “An tu egressus porta Capena cum Calatini, Scipionum, Serviliorum, Metellorum, seplcra vides, miseros putas illos?”  When you go out by the Porta Capena and see the tombs of Calatinus, of the Scipios, of the Metelli, do you think them wretched? - L. Scipio Barbatus - 1 of family to be buried in Tomb of Scipios - sarcophagus now in Vatican - form of altar - doric frieze under lid - prob. not his original sarcophagus Scipio Epitaphs (Day 7) 4/13/16 - possibly early 1 c. BCE - not original to him: Barbatus’ inscription has been carved over earlier one - L. Cornelio Cn.f. Scipio - “Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus Gnaiovod patre I prognatus, fortis vir sapiensque, quoius farma virtutei parisuma I tuit; consol censor aedilis quei fuit apud vos Taurasiam Cisauna i Samnio cepit, subigit omne Loucanam opsideesque abdoucit.”  Lucius Cornelius Scipio, Long-Beard, begotten by Gnaeus, a brave man and wise whose looks were the perfect match for his courage, who was consul, censor, aedile among you; he captured Taurasio Cisauna from Samnium; he overcomes all Lucania, and brings back hostages from there. - Lucius Cornelius Scipio, son of Lucius, aedile, consul, censor - This man, Lucius Scipio, as most agree, was the best of all good men at Rome. - Son of Long-Beard, he was consul, censor, aedile among you; he captured Corsica, Aleria too, a city to the weather Goddesses he gave, deservedly, a temple. - Epitaph of Atilius Calatinus - Hunc unum plurimae consentiunt gentes populi primarium fuiss e virum  This one, vary many families agree was the first man of the people (of Rome) - You who wore the honored cap of the Flamen Dialis. Death caused all your merits to be short-lived: honor, repute, courage, glory, and brilliance. If you had been allowed to use these over a long life, you would easily have surpassed the glory of your ancestors with your deeds. For this reason the Earth joyfully receives you into her bosom, Cornelius Scipio begotten from Publius. - Lucius Cornelius Scipio, son of Gnaeus, grandson of Gnaeus - This stone contains many virtues and great wisdom, together with a short life. His life-span, not his honor, fell short of honors. He is buried here who was never excelled in courage, at twenty years he was buried, lest you ask why honors were not granted him. - Lucius Cornelius Scipio, son of Lucius, grandson of Publius, quaestor, tribune of the soldiers, died at age 33. His father vanquished King Antiochus. Scipio Epitaphs (Day 7) 4/13/16 - Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus Unshorn, son of Lucius, grandson of Lucius, 16 years old - Paula Cornelia, daughter of Gnaeus, wife of Hispallus - Epitaph for Claudia: A Roman Matron - Visitor, what I ask is a small thing: stand and read. This is the lovely tomb of a lovely lady. Her parents named her Claudia. She loved her husband from her heart. She gave birth to two sons, one of whom she leaves on earth, the other she buried. She was charming in speech, and suitable in bearing. She kept house, she made wool. I have spoken. Go away. - Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispanus, son of Gnaeus, praetor, curule aedile, quaestor, tribune of soldiers twice, member of the board of ten for making sacrifices. - By my character I increased the virtues of my clan. I sired a family and sought to equal the deeds of my ancestors. I upheld the praise of my ancestors so that they rejoice that I was created of their blood. My honor ennobled my stock. - In sum … - Public monuments - Civic census - Score-keeping - Competitive - Sense of representing family, of justifying one’s existence to one’s ancestors - Polybius on the Roman Funeral: From Book 6 - They have among them certain institutions by which the young men are greatly animated to perform acts of bravery. - It will be sufficient to mention one of these … “When any illustrious person dies, he is carried in procession with the rest of the funeral pomp, to the rostra in the forum; sometimes placed conspicuous in an upright posture; and sometimes, though less frequently, reclined.” - What does “funeral pomp” mean? - From Greek πομπή, “procession” - What are the rostra? - Rostrum, n. (the snout or muzzle of an animal, prow of ship) - After a naval victory in 338 BCE, the Romans hung up the prows of enemy ships on a speaking platform in the forum. Scipio Epitaphs (Day 7) 4/13/16 - “And while the people are all standing round, his son, if he has one left one of sufficient age, and who is then at Rome, or, if otherwise, some person of his kindred, ascends the rostra, and extols the virtues of the deceased, and the great deeds that were performed by him in his life.” - “By this discourse, which recalls his past actions to remembrance, and places them in open view before all the multitude, not those alone who were sharers in his victories, but even the rest who bore no part in his exploits, are moved to such sympathy of sorrow, that the accident seems rather to be a public misfortune, than a private loss.” - “He is then buried with the usual rites; and afterwards an image, which both in features and complexion expresses an exact resemblance of his face, is set up in the most conspicuous part of the house, enclosed in a shrine of wood. Upon solemn festivals, these images are uncovered, and adorned with the greatest care.” - Imagines - Portrait busts of ancestors - What else does Polybius say? - What is the effect of this sight on the young? - What story does he tell us as an example of Roman courage? Plautus (Day 8) 4/15/16 - Watch “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum” - Funny musical made in the 1960s - Titus Maccius Plautus - Came from Umbria (outside of Rome) - Laborer; usually important got 3 names, so the fact that he has one is uncommon - 3 Names - Titus praenomen Gaius Marcus - Maccius nomen (“son of Maccus”) Iulius Tullius - Plautus cognomen Caesar Cicero - Name of stock character; clown - “flatfoot” - Tragic & Common Masks - Aristotle said tragedy is good & needed - Big mouth so people can project - Exaggerated gestures - Scene 1: Grumio & Tranio - Text doesn’t include stage directions - How would this scene be performed? - How does the dialogue explain the action / setting? - Grumio: Hey there, Tranio! Come out of that kitchen, will you! … Come out, young whipper-snapper! … Up to some saucy tricks among the saucepans, I’ll be bound … Come out here you master’s ruin! By gum, I’ll give you what you deserve if I get you out on the farm, may I die if I don’t. What are you hiding in there for, you smelly scullion? Come out here, I tell you! - What illustrates character? - What oppositions structure the dialogue in the scene? - Where is Grumio / Tranio usually? - Why all this talk about food? - What kind of food? - Scene 2: Philoaches’ Monologue - After much pondering and contemplation and serious cogitation … or shall I say heart-searching – if I have anything that can be called a heart; after much thought, I say, and inward rumination – MAN, it seems to me, MAN, in whatever station he happens to be born, is rather like … somewhat resembles … something which, I think, if I can illustrate my meaning … well its this: I think a man, born on this earth, is rather like … Plautus (Day 8) 4/15/16 - To what does he compare “a man”? - What is Philoaches’ stock character? - What does this monologue tell us about him? - How do you think it would have been performed? - Scene 3: Philematium & Scapha - Two women enter - P: That was a lovely cold bath, Scapha. I don’t know when I’ve felt so clean. S: Everybody’s happy then; it was a good harvest this year. P: What has this year’s harvest got to do with my bath? S: No more than your bath has to do with this year’s harvest. - What are their roles? - As the slave are interested in food and describe it in detail, so too the women have an interest. What is it? - Who overhears their conversation? - How would this scene have been performed? - Philoaches - The lovely Venus herself! Here’s the very tornado that stripped me of my root of modesty and brought Love and Desire, as I told you, cascading into my upper story; and I can’t keep them out, no matter what I do. I’m soaked to the heart; the house is doomed.


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