CLAS 202 - Week 5 Notes
CLAS 202 - Week 5 Notes CLAS 202
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AGRI 116 001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jaeger M in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Roman Life & Culture in Classical Studies at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Suetonius & 12 Caesars (Day 11) 4/25/16 - Suetonius - Born ~ 70 CE - Possibly from Hippo Regius (modern Algeria) - Further Facts - Equestrian family - Father = military tribune for Otho - In Rome by 90 CE - Younger Pliny was his patronus - Appears in letters Pliny wrote in 97 CE - Suetonius also wrote - On Roman Spectacles and Contests - On Abusive Words or Insults and their Derivation - On the Correct Names and Form of Clothes and Sandals and Other Things that People Wear - On Cicero’s Republic - On Notable Prostitutes - On Bodily Defects - On Kings - On Varied Topics - On Illustrious Men - The Twelve Caesars - Wrote in Greek as well as Latin - On Greek Games - Held Official Posts - A studies “for studies” - Probably under Trajan - A bibliothecis “for libraries” - Probably under Trajan - Ab epistulis “for letters” - Under Hadrian - Reorganized the Calendar - 365 days & 12 months - day added in Feb. every 4 years - used broadly until Gregorian calendar of 1582, which makes years divisible by 100 not leap years (except divisible by 400 remain leap years) - The First Stage - Antony (co-consul) & Lepidus (magister equitum) against The Liberators - G. Octavius arrives Suetonius & 12 Caesars (Day 11) 4/25/16 - Accepts inheritance - Sells property to pay Caesar’s bequests “You who wore the honored cap of the Flamen Dialis. Death caused all your merits to be short lived: honor, repute, courage, glory, and brilliance. If you had been allowed to use these over a long life, you would easily have surpassed the glory of your ancestors with your deeds. For this reason the Earth joyfully receives you into her bosom, Cornelius Scipio begotten from Publius.” The Julio – Claudians (Day 12) 4/27/16 - Processions Inside & Out - Sacrificial procession on altar itself - Procession of magistracies, priests, & imperial family - No Vestal Virgins - Ara Pacis Augustae - Religious ritual - Peace through victory - Security through strength - Community: everyone is there - Augustan art & literature is polyvalent - Image or poem or work of history does not have one fixed interpretation - Multiple interpretations that work together to promote an image of: - Rejuvenation - Health - Community - Morality - Other Buildings - Temples restored - Temple of Apollo on the Palatine - Agrippa’s Pantheon - Forum - Theaters - Restored theater of Pompey - Built theater of Marcellus - The Pantheon - One we see today was built during reign of Hadrian - Agrippa built one on same spot in 27 BCE - Agrippa built nearby: - Baths - Basilica of Neptune - Saepta Julia (voting enclosure) - Forum Augustum - And the Temple of Mars Ultor - Vowed in 42 BCE / Dedicated in 2 BCE - Boys assumed the toga virilis in it (accepted into manhood; age 15) - Governors made it their starting point when they left for their provinces - Senate debated on war & award of triumphs The Julio – Claudians (Day 12) 4/27/16 - The Julio Claudians - Julius Caesar to Nero - Suetonius Covers - Julius Caesar - Augustus - Tiberius - Caligula - Claudius - Galba - Otho - Vitellius - Vespasian - Titus - Domitian - Nero - Julio Claudians’ Timeline - Julius Caesar, died 44 BCE - Augustus, ruled 31 BC – 14 AD - Tiberius, ruled 14 – 37 AD - Caligula, 37 – 41 AD - Claudius, 41 – 54 AD - Nero, 54 – 68 AD - *A dynasty, not a familia, not a gens* - Familia - Economic unit - Paterfamilias in control of property / family - Nero Claudius Drusus - Tiberius’ brother - Died in 9 BC - Livy’s history goes until death of Drusus - Had son w/ Antonia (Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus) - Became Germanicus Iulius Caesar - Married Vipsania Agrippina - Died under mysterious circumstances - Had 2 sons - Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus - Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus - Emperor Claudius End of Civil War (Day 13) 4/29/16 - Republican System - Checks & balances - Annually elected officials - Multiple office holders w/ right of veto - Strongly anti-monarchal - A Highly Competitive System - Scipio Epitaphs - Polybius on Roman Funeral - Even Cato’s idea of farming is competitive - Res private / res publica - Caesar - Dictator in perpetuity - Consul in 46 – 44 BC - Did not rise from seat to meet a delegation of senators - Incident @ Lupercalia Mark Antony offered a crown 3x, Caesar refused it - Planned to leave for Parthia on March 18, 44 - After Caesar’s Assassination - “the liberators” (M. Brutus, Cassius … ) - Cicero not a part of conspiracy, but sided w/ “liberators” - Antony: Caesar’s co-consul - Lepidus: Caesar’s Master of Horse - Also made Pontifex Maximus - Amnesty voted “liberators” - Senate votes to confirm Caesar’s unpublished book - Calpernicus Piso has his will read - Caesar’s Will - Caesar left gifts to Romans - Gardens & some of his money to each person nd - Had D. Brutus as heir in the 2 degree - Adopted grand-nephew, Gaius Octavius as his heir - P. Cornelius Dollabella made consul suffectus in Caesar’s palace (Cicero’s son-in-law) - Supported “liberators” until Antony offered him governorship of Syria & command vs. Parthians - Around March 20 th - Calpernicus Piso led procession - Antony’s speech works up crowd - Wax effigy of body, w/ wounds, also JC’s bloodied toga - Crown burns body in forum End of Civil War (Day 13) 4/29/16 - Attacks houses of “liberators” - More Developments - Brutus & Cassius go off too Eastern provinces & form army - Lepidus gets title of pontifex maximus Gaul - G. Octavius, in Greece @ time of assassination, comes to Rome to take inheritance - Antony - Caesar’s co-consul - Growing rift between him & Caesar’s other supporters - As consul, ability to pass off own decisions - G. Octavius - At adoption becomes Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus - 19 y/o - Summer 44 - Cicero comes out of “retirement” to attack Antony - 14 speeches called “Philippics” - Antony takes 5 legions to Gaul & besieges Decimus Brutus / army in Mutina - More Twists & Turns - Senate votes to outlaw Antony - Hirtius & Pansa, 2 of Caesar’s supporters consuls for 43 BC - Senate sends them w/ Octavian as praetor - Consuls die in battle, leaving Octavian in charge of army - Octavian - Refuses to speak to Brutus, whom he had been sent to save - Brutus flees & is killed - Marches to Rome & extorts consulship from Senate - Meets Antony & Lepidus near Bologne - Soldiers refuse to fight - They are Caesar’s veterans & want to avenge Caesar - Proscriptions - Had 100,000 soldiers & no way to pay them - Over 3,000 members of upper-class = murdered - Property confiscated - 40 BC: Roman World Divided - Antony gets East / Octavia (Octavian’s elder sister) - Lepidus gets Africa (not Egypt) End of Civil War (Day 13) 4/29/16 - Octavian gets West / marries Scribonia (daughter of Sextus Pompey’s father-in-law) - 38 BC: Octavian Marries Livia - She was already married & pregnant - Already had a son (future emperor Tiberius) - he had been married to Clodia Pulchra, & then in 40 BC to Scribonia who then divorced in 39 - Clodia Pulchra - Daughter of Fulvia (wife of Mark Antony) & previous husband Publius Clodius Pulcher (Cicero’s old enemy) - Scribonia - Daughter of Scribonius Libo, father-in-law of Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompey the Great) - Sextus Pompeius carried on Pompeian cause after father’s death om wars against Caesar - Further Developments - Antony heads East after Philippi - Meets Cleopatra in Cilicia in 41 BC - Spends winter of 41 – 40 w/ her in Alexandria - Have twins & another child - Sextus Pompey defeated @ Naulochos in Sicily, 36 (executed 1 year later) - Lepidus removed from triumvirate & “retired” to Italy - Octavian takes over Africa from Lepidus - Octavia - Accompanies Antony to East in 39 BC - Returns w/ him to Italy in 37 - Is left behind when he returns to East in 37 - Paths Diverge - 36 BC, Antony has disasterous experience in Parthia - 36, Octavian has stunning victory over Sextus Pompey - Antony in Alexandria - Living it up - Wild parties / drunkenness - Octavian in Italy - Making sure people are fed - Restoring land taken in proscriptions to (heirs) of old owners - 35, Octavian sends Octavia w/ troops as aid after Parthian disaster End of Civil War (Day 13) 4/29/16 - Antony tells her not to come any further than Athens - Alexandria - 34 BC, Antony stages triumph over Armenia - distributes eastern lands to Cleopatra, her children by him & her son by Julius Caesar - so-called “donations of Alexandria” - Battle of Actium - Sept 2, 31 BC - Octavian after Actium - 33 y/o - entire military at his disposal - Triple Triumph of 29 BC - Illyricum / coast North of Actium - Actium - Egypt - What is a lectisternium? - Banquet for gods whose images were placed on couches - Supervised by priests (public participation) - Meant to propitiate gods, repel enemies - 1 celebrated in 399 BC (Sibylline books) - celebrated in 217 for 12 great gods - 12 Great Gods - Jupiter - Juno - Minerva - Mars - Venus - Diana - Apollo - Neptune - Pluto - Mercury - Vulcan - Hercules - Salian Forests - Salii - Italian sodalitas - Sodales, friends or members of same priestly college - Wore dress of archaic Italian food-soldier End of Civil War (Day 13) 4/29/16 - Painted tunic - Carried shield - Moved through city w/ ritual dance
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