PSY 201 Mind and Body Class Notes Week 2
PSY 201 Mind and Body Class Notes Week 2 PSY 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexys Johnson on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Sereno in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
October 4-6 2016 Week two Class notes Research Methodology 1. Goals of psychological science 1. Examples (Bystander Effect/ Diffusion of Responsibility) b. Description i. Detail or catalogue metal processes and behaviors 1. People tend to put less effort into a task when they are part of a large group c. Understanding i. Develop explanations (or theories) of how the mind works 1. Feel less responsibility when the blame can be shared with others d. Predictions i. Use the theories to predict behaviors and thoughts 1. Effect can be reduced by making people feel less a part of the group e. Application i. Apply these theories to influence behavior and thought 1. Reducing effect by singling out group members, or training that educates about the effect and emphasizes personal responsibility 2. Ways of knowing… a. Tenacity i. Acceptance of a belief based on the idea that “it must be true” or “we’ve always know it to be this way” b. Authority i. Acceptance of a belief based on the word of a trusted authority c. Reason i. Acceptance of a belief because it is logically consistent with other strongly held beliefs d. Observation i. Acceptance of a belief because of evidence witnessed first hand e. Scientific Method i. Theory: an explanation or model of how something works ii. Hypothesis: a specific, testable prediction about the outcome of an event iii. Data: Results of an objective and verifiable test of a hypothesis 1. Theory: Cognitive processing relies on a limited store of mental resources 2. Hypothesis: Distraction consume mental resources. Leaving fewer for other tasks (cell phone use increases breaking distance in response to sudden obstacles) 3. Data: Measurements of breaking distance with and without a cell phone f. Experiment: an attempt to identify a cause-and-effect relationship between two phenomena, by manipulation one phenomenon and observing the effect of the other g. Steps in an Experiment i. Formulation of theory ii. Formulation of the specific hypothesis iii. Design a test of the hypothesis 1. Variables a. Independent Variable (IV): the manipulated variable, hypothesized to be the cause of the predicted effect i. Having and not having the cell phone b. Dependent Variable (DV): the measured variable, hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable i. The time it takes to break the same distance iv. Preform test and observe results. Experimenter manipulates the IV to see fi it has an effect on the DV v. Critical evaluation of the results (analyze and interpret data) 1. Possible findings and interpretations a. Breaking distance with cell phone: 258 feet b. Breaking distance without cell phone: 240 feet c. *this supports the theory d. Frequency Distribution can tell a lot e. Central tendency: typical value/score i. Mean: arithmetic average of the score ii. Median: the middle score in the range of score iii. Mode: the most frequent score f. Variability: degree to which numbers are dispersed about mean i. Range: highest score to the lowest score ii. Standard Deviation: average difference between each score and the mean score iii. Correlation: measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. Ranges from -1 to +1 vi. Revise theory if necessary vii. Communicate the findings in scientific journals and presentations 3. Science is an objective method, driven by observations that van be verified and replicated, science is data-driven 4. Science is self-correcting, correct observations will be replicates while incorrect assertions 5. Correlation is NOT Causation! 6. It could be a third factor (a confound) that plays a casual role in the other two 7. Even if there is a casual relationship, its direction is often uncertain 8. Could be a random relationship that only appears correlated October 6 2016 1 Neurons a Information processing/transmitting cells of the nervous system b Information represented by electrical signals within neurons, chemical signals between neurons c When transferring signals, the axons terminals (pre-synaptic cell -membrane-) transfer the signal through a synaptic cleft, which then must be transferred into chemical signal in order to be received by the dendrites (post-synaptic cell -membrane-) 2 Cell Membrane a The plasma membrane has two layers that oppose each other where one side attracts water and the other side deflects it b It is semipermeable c It acts as a battery d Ions have their charge because of the electrons, too few means a positively charged ion, too many means a negative charge e Ions: A- (organic anions = proteins) Cl- (chloride ions) K+ (potassium ions) Na+ (sodium ions) f Forces that maintain the resting potential at -70mV (-0.070 volts) i Diffusion: things diffuse form areas of high concentration into areas of low concentration ii Electrostatic Attraction/Repulsion: having two ions with the same charge will always repulse from each other, but two ions with opposite charges will attract each other iii The Sodium-Potassium Pump: Sodium ions are always being pushed out in groups of three, and potassium ions are always being sucked in in groups of two 3 Synapse a Site of chemical communication between neurons 4 Neurotransmitter a Molecule that carries the neuronal signal across the synaptic cleft b Exocytosis: when an action potential arrives, the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, then the neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft, and the neurotransmitter then binds to the receptor. Then in the synaptic cleft the neurotransmitter molecules then bind to the ion channels (receptors) on the receiving neurons c Receptor: neurotransmitter-dependent ion channel 5 Different ion channels =different postsynaptic results a Inflow of Na+ causes depolarization (EPSP) b Outflow of K+ causes hyperpolarization (IPSP) c Inflow of Cl- causes hyperpolarization (IPSP) 6 Neurotransmitter Deactivation a Reuptake: neurotransmitter pulled back into presynaptic neuron for reuse b Deactivating enzymes: destroy neurotransmitter destroyed in synaptic cleft 7 Neural Integration a Temporal Summation: the integration of the EPSPs/IPSPs that occur at different times on the same neuron i When two IPSPs elicited in rapid succession sum into a larger IPSP (just like a wave length -physics-) b Spatial Summation: the integration of EPSPs/IPSPs that occur at different sites on the same neuron i Same as two wavelengths, they will either sum together and become larger, of they will come together and cancel out (in order for this to occur, they must be both occurring at the right site and during the right time) c Action Potential: a very brief, sudden reversal of the membrane potential i When you add excitatory neurons, it reaches the threshold of excitation, then the cell is no longer at rest, which achieves the action potential
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