Psyc 1500, Chapter 1-3
Psyc 1500, Chapter 1-3 Psyc 1500
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelby Orlando on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1500 at Lakeland Community College taught by Dr. Gabriel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Lakeland Community College.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
9/1 Notes: 4 Descriptive Methods: 1. Naturalistic observation- watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment. 2. Case study- study of one individual in great detail 3. Surveys- researchers ask a series of questions about the topic under study 4. Correlation- measures of two variables go into a mathematical formula. Does not equal causation. ● Positive correlation- variables are related in the same direction. Ranges from -1.0 to +1.0. Positive does not equal good-means they are moving together. As one increases, the other increases. As one decreases, the other decreases. ● Negative correlation- (the greater...the less) variables are related in opposite direction. As one increases, the other decreases. Negative does not equal bad- means the variables are moving opposite of each other. The closer to +1.00 or -1.00, the stronger the relationship between the variables No correlation= 0.0 Perfect correlation= -1.00 or +1.00 Experiment; how X affects Y A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether changes in behavior result. Allows for determination of cause-and-effect relationships Need operational definitions of variables Independent Variable (IV)- (actively manipulating) the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter. Dependent Variable (DV)- (What is the effect of IV) trying to measure to see if a change. “(IV) depends on (DV)” or “(DV) depends on (IV)” Scientific Method: 1. Perceive the question 2. Formulate a hypothesis 3. Test the hypotheses Draw conclusions 4. 5. Report the results Ethics in Psychological Research The rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study’s value to science. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation. Deception must be justified. Data must remain confidential. Participants may withdraw from the study at any time. 9/6 Notes: Chapter 2: Biological perspective- Neurons- 1. Soma-cell body (brain center) 2. Axons- send messages to the next neuron in line. The myelin sheath serves as a protecting covering and doesn’t let the message deviate, which sends quicker and faster. 3. Dendrites- the part of the cell that receives the message. 4. Axon terminal (Tiny little buttons)- rounded areas at the end of the branches at the end of the axon. ● Responsible for communicating with other nerve cells Neurotransmitter - chemical found in the axon terminals which, when released, has an effect on the next cell. Ions: charged particles Inside neuron- negatively charged. Resting potential- waiting for a message to arrive Action potential- triggers for the message to be sent All-or-none- neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all, then returns to resting potential. Synaptic gap- fluid filled gap. Communication within a neuron is electrical but between two neurons is chemical. Similar to lock and key- they have to bound to their correct receptor sites. Neurotransmitters/functions: Acetylcholine (ACh)- memory and controls muscle contractions ex: parkinson's, alzheimer's Norepinephrine (NE)- arousal and moods Dopamine (DA)- control movement and sensations of pleasure Serotonin (5-HT)- sleep, mood, and anxiety ex: eating disorders, schizophrenia Nervous system Two branches: 1. Central nervous system- brain and spinal cord a. Brain- interprets and stores information and sends orders to muscles,glands, and organs. b. Spinal cord- pathway connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system. 2. Peripheral nervous system- transmits information to and from the central nervous system a. Autonomic nervous system (Automatic)- things that happen without even thinking about them. Ex: blinking or breathing. i. Parasympathetic division- maintains body functions under ordinary conditions- saves energy; sense of relief ii. Sympathetic division- prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress; fight or flight b. Somatic nervous system (Think to happen)- ex: eating or driving. i. Sensory system (afferent) - carries messages from senses to CNS ii. Motor Systems ( efferent) - Carries messages from CNS to muscles and glands Endocrine glands- glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream Hormones- chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrin glands Examples: Pituitary gland: the “master gland” Pineal gland: secretes melatonin Thyroid gland: regulates metabolism Pancreas: controls the sugar levels in blood Brain Clinical studies: -Lesioning- kills brain cells -Electrical stimulation of the brain- artificially excited Mapping the brain- through CT and MRI Mapping function- EEG, MEG, PET (See book) The brain is divided into 3 regions- hindbrain, limbic, cerebral cortex Hindbrain- 1. Medulla- responsible for autonomic; heartbeat, breathing and swallowing 2. Pons- relays message and responsible for sleep and wakefulness 3. Reticular Formation- between pons and cerebellum- attention, sleep and wakefulness 4. Cerebellum- voluntary actions; responsible for balance, muscle control; first area of the brain that is directly affected by alcohol. Limbic system 1. Thalamus- relay station- gets all the sensory info from sensory organs and tells it where to go. 2. Hypothalamus- below the thalamus- regulates a lot of basic biological needs. Fear or sex. 3. Hippocampus- responsible for forming new memories 4. Amygdala- motivation, emotional control, fear response, and interpretation of nonverbal emotional expressions; controls fear and rage responses. 5. Cingulate cortex- emotional and cognitive performing Cortex and Cerebral Hemispheres- 1. Cerebral Cortex- controls complex 2. Cerebral hemispheres- 3. Corpus callosum- band of axons that serves as a bridge between the left and right hemispheres of your brain (left hemisphere controls the right side of body, the right hemisphere controls the left side of body) Four lobes of the brain- 1. Occipital lobe- processing visual information; visual cortex. Ex: seeing stars. 2. Parietal Lobe- right above temporal; responsible for kinesthetic information- aware of the surroundings. 3. Frontal Lobe- Phineas Gage responsible for higher order; problem solving or processing how to write essay. Broca’s Area- understand what is being said but can not put sentences together. 4. Temporal Lobe- processes auditory information; Wernicke's Area- ability to understand meaning in speech; if damaged cannot understand speech ex: not being able to understand things like: the sky is blue. Split Brain Research ● Study of patients with severed corpus callosum ● Involves sending messages to only one side of the brain ● Demonstrates right and left brain specialization Notes 9/13: Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception Sensation-the process of detecting physical energy. Sensory receptors- specialized forms of neurons ● stimulated by different kinds of energy rather than by neurotransmitters Sensory Thresholds Just noticeable difference: The smallest difference between 2 stimuli that is detectable 50% of the time; change between 2 stimuli. Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is present; change for one stimuli. Examples: Sight- candle flame at 30 miles away Hearing- ticking of a watch 20 ft away Smell- one drop of perfume Taste- 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Touch- a bee’s wing falling on you. Subliminal stimuli: stimuli that are below the level conscious awareness ● Just strong enough to activate the sensory receptors, but not strong enough for people to be consciously aware of them ● Limin- “threshold” ● subliminal- “below the threshold” Habituation- the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information; when your sensory receptors know that it’s triggered but not sending the message. (Brain stops listening to information)- lights buzzing Sensory Adaption- the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging; when messages being sent to the brain but the brain doesn’t pay attention anymore (Tune out information)- senses stop sending info to your brain. -cup of coffee bitter 3 Perceptual Properties of Light 1. Brightness is determined by the amplitude of the wave- how high or low the wave is. 2. Color, or hue, is determined by the length of the light wave. 3. Saturation: the purity of the color people see. Visible light 400-700 nm (Between 10^1 and 10^3) Structure of the Eye: 1. Cornea- bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina. Clear, protects eye (LASIK surgery) 2. Aqueous humor- clear liquid that nourishes the eye, keeps eyes moist 3. Iris- its muscles control the size of the pupil, muscle that opens and closes pupil, colored part of eye 4. Pupil- its opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment. Tunnel to back of eye 5. Lens- changes shape to bring objects into focus, makes things sharp and clear (like a camera) 6. Retina- Contains three layers: ( ganglion cells, bipolar cells, photoreceptors that respond to various light waves ) Delivers visual messages to brain; a. Two cell types- i. Rods-100 million rods in each eye; see in grey scale- very sensitive to light (too much causes to shut down); on the periphery of the Retina. ii. Cones- 60 million cones in each eye.; see in color- not very sensitive (too little light causes to shut down); Center of retina (fovea) 7. Fovea- central area of retina; greatest density of photoreceptors. Location of cones 8. Optic nerve- sends visual information to the brain 9. Blind spot( optic disc)- where the optic nerve leaves the eye; there are no photoreceptor cells here. 10.Vitreous humor- jelly-like liquid that nourishes and gives shape to the eye. Dark Adaptation- the recovery of the eye’s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights. (light to darkness) ● night blindness Light Adaptation- the recovery of the eye’s sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness. (darkness to light) Color vision: ● Trichromatic theory- theory of color vision that propose three types of cones: red,blue, and green. ● Opponent-process theory- theory of color vision that proposes four primary colors with cones arranged in pairs: red and green, blue and yellow. (explains after images) Perception and Constancies ● Perception- how we interpret and organize sensations 9/20 Notes: ○ Size Constancy- even if image is growing or shrinking due to location, brain processes it as it is same size, location just varies ○ Shape Constancy- shape on the retina is changing. ○ Brightness Constancy- same level of brightness if nothing else in the room are changing Gestalt principles Figure-ground The tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background (black and white figures) Reversible Figures visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed (The necker cube) Examples: Proximity- perceive as groups (how close they are together) Similarity- tend to group things with more common characteristics together Closure- our brain can fill in spaces to give us a complete picture. Continuity- our brain likes to see things in smooth continuous lines. Development of Perception Depth perception- the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions Example: FIAT commercial Monocular Cues (pictorial depth cues)- only need one eye to perceive depth. Examples: ● Linear perspective- lane of trees coming together ● Texture gradient- large pebbles to small ones ● Aerial or atmospheric perspective- further away the hazier it gets ● Relative size- big flowers to small flowers ● Motion parallax- discrepancy in motion of near and far objects (plane moving overhead) Binocular Cues- need both eyes to perceive depth (one eye will not work) Examples ● Convergence-brains cue to tell us when something is close to us because of our eye muscle sensations ● Binocular disparity- two different images that combine into one (switch eyes while looking at finger) Perceptual Illusions Muller-lyer- occurs more frequently in people living in a western culture (Two lines; same size, different ends Moon Illusion- the moon on the horizon appears to be larger than the moon in the sky Apparent distance hypothesis Ames Room Illusion- the floor is not square, actually angled; higher on one side than the other (shaped like a trapezoid) Factors that influence Perception ● Perceptual set- how to organize things ● Top-down processing - start with whole image (smiley face) ● Bottom-up processing- looking at the pieces parts (smiley face) Persistence of vision- running with sparklers and the momentary trail of light seems to be left behind.
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