Drugs and Behavior Week 6 notes
Drugs and Behavior Week 6 notes PSYC 265
Popular in Drugs and Behavior
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 265 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Stoltenberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Drugs and Behavior Week 6 Chapter 6 Monday, Sept 26 http://learn.genetics.utah.edu Look at it! Mouse party –explore I. Basic genetics/DNA a. Knowing your genetics can help you receive the right help faster b. Genes are hereditary material –familial resemblance and personality c. Genes build proteins i. Parts of neurons (receptors) ii. Variation in sequence affects structure and function of neurons iii. Certain genes code for certain things and genetic variations have impact on risk for abuse d. Understand genetics of addiction requires several approaches and convergent evidence i. Many different kinds of methodology to study a problem ii. Questionnaires good but might lie or not true truth, just how they remember iii. Animal studies –change only 1 gene and compare iv. Convergent evidence –consider everything to gain more confidence over topic e. Prevention and treatment effort benefit from better understanding of roles that genes play in addiction f. GATTACA –movie. Fantastic! Genetically select traits for offspring II. DNA a. Genome of 3 billion base pairs i. Adenine ii. Guanine iii. Thymine iv. Cytosine b. Packed into chromosomes c. Genes are DNA sequences to specify a protein (21,000 genes in genome) d. Chromosomes –in nucleus, 23 pairs, 1 from mom and 1 from dad, Sex chromosomes (XX female, XY male) III. Key terminology a. Phenotype –ovservable trait (eye color) b. Allele –variant (either B or b) c. Genotype –genetic makeup (B/B, B/b, b/b) d. Homozygous genotype –same (B/B or b/b) e. Heterozygous genotype –different (B/b) f. Polygenic –determined by multiple genes (addiction) g. Heritability –statistic that indexes proportion of variation of trait in population explained by genetic variation in population IV. Family studies a. Share genes and environment b. Not inevitable, but vulnerable c. Knowing history can help make choices –aversion- negative attitude about used based on heavy parental drinking d. FH+ or FH- e. First degree relatives (share 50% material with) i. If have alcohol dependence, 2-4x higher to develop AD than those without f. Siblings of AD probands have increased rates of dependence on other substances g. COGA –genetics of alcoholism i. LARGE group in study, extensively studied, neuropsychological, electrophysiological studies ii. Helped us putstumbers on what is happening with those with 1 degree relative with AD V. Twin studies a. Important methodology in behavior genetics b. Monozygote (MZ) twins share 100% genes (identical) c. Dizygotic twins (DZ) share 50% of genes (fraternal) d. Genetic factors influence trait, MZ twins should be more similar to each other than DZ twin pairs e. GENES MAKE DIFFERENCE IN ADDICTION Wednesday Sept 28 I. Odds ratio a. Statistic that shows risk for one outcome relative to another b. Shows risk of something for 2 groups c. OR > 1 =increased risk d. OR < 1 =decreased risk i. Cannot be negative ii. Zero would mean risk free (very uncommon) e. Does sibling with alcoholism increase risk of addiction? i. Our of 100 people, 30 with alcoholic sibling have addiction ii. Out of 100 ipeople, 15 without alcoholic sibling have addiction iii. OR for alcoholic sibling vs those without = .30/.15=2.0 1. People with alcoholic sibling are twice as likely to develop an addiction f. Candidate genes i. Which genes influence vulnerability to substance use disorders? ii. Candidate gene –(selected based on 1. Findings from other studies 2. Knowledge that biological system involved II. Alcohol metabolism genes a. Alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH—4q) i. High functioning alleles are associated with reduced risk for alcohol dependence b. Aldehydedehydrogenase(ALDH—12q) i. 31% of Chinese, 45% of Japanese, 29% of Koreans, 10% of Thais, and 0% of Western and Central European Whites possess at least one ALDH2*2 allele ii. ALDH2*2 reduces or eliminates ALDH c. Ethanol + ADH Acetaldehyde + ALDH Acetate d. Build up of acetaldehyde creates a flushing in face i. Antibuse inhibits ALDH create this flushing and is used for compliant patients when treating alcoholism. ii. Some people just have a gene that does this naturally –in Asian groups. Having this makes you less likely to become alcoholics III. Association studies a. Case-control studies examine allele frequencies in people with disorder and group without b. Alleles are genevariants c. ALVH2 alleles are *1 and *2 i. If have *1 Allele, more likely to not have alcoholism IV. Candidate genes involved in AD and alcohol-related phenotypes a. We are all at some risk, some carry more than other or grew up in worse environments than others b. BAR FLIES i. Get flies drunk and mutate genes haha ii. Light weight, tipsy, cheep date iii. Bar flies resist alcohol well iv. Drunk flies run around like crazy v. Biphasic –stimulatory phase and depressant stage vi. At low doses, alcohol is stimulating vii. Once more, becomes a depressant Friday, Sept 30 I. Different phenotypic preferences to alcohol a. Mice only given water with 10% ethanol so get used to it b. Free choice alcohol consumption –breed for phenotype c. 5-HTR1B –receptor on post synaptic cleft, mood disorders, impulsive violence, also things involved in serotonin i. +/+ have both ii. -/- have none of these receptors d. Knockout mice are aggressive, but also enjoy alcohol more i. Comorbid alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) ii. Alcoholic vs non-alcoholics –association with expressing HTR1B gene iii. ASPD have increased risk for alcoholism iv. People with this allele have alcoholism when they have ASPD II. Genetic vulnerability a. Research with both humans and non-human animals provides strong convergent evidence that genes influence risk for alcohol drinking behaviors and problems b. Genes don’t determine behaviors c. Mental illnesses are likely a result of genetic vulnerability plus environmental challenge d. Not everyone with predisposing genes will develop problems e. Even those with low vulnerability can develop problems when environmental challenges are severe III. Emotion a. Change very quickly b. Some people drink to feel less sad, other drink to feel happier c. Coping -drink to feel less awkward, get your mind off something d. Enhancement –drinking to feel more social e. Can do both f. Daily drinking –asking underage drinkers how they feel when they are drinking is the best prediction of how they really feel. Self reports could be lies though. IV. Mood a. More long term. Positive or not throughout course of life.
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