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by: Lauren Starr

Class History 105

Lauren Starr
Texas A&M

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History of the U.S.
Dr. Donald Willett
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Date Created: 10/01/16
P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, AS084-07 May 17, 200110:51 Char Count= 0 A Comparison of Y oung Women’s Psychosocial Status Based on Age of Their First Childbirth This 12-year longitudinal study examined the psychological status; social relationships; and home, work, and parenting stress and satisfaction in their young adulthood for a sample of rural women who were teen mothers compared to their cohort who had their first child in their twenties. Differences in de- pression, loneliness, and self-esteem were explained by prior psychological status as teens. Home stress/satisfaction factors and parenting satisfaction and efficacy were also similar after controlling for number of children. Service providers need to understand psychosocial outcomes of first childbirth in order to more effectively meet the physical and mental health needs of all young mothers. Key words: psychosocial outcomes, rural, teen mothers Judith R. Vicary, PhD ISCUSSIONS OF THE conse- Professor of Biobehavioral Health D quences of adolescent childbearing College of Health and Human have long centered on the negative eco- Development nomic and educational outcomes associ- Penn State University University Park, Pennsylvania ated with early childbearing. These are important and serious outcomes; for ex- ample, there is considerable evidence that Devon A. Corneal, MS early childbearing is associated with lower Law Student Seton Hall University educational and occupational attainment, School of Law increased risk of poverty and welfare Newark, New Jersey dependence, larger family size, and in- creased risk of marital instability. is known, however, about the long-term psychosocial consequences of adolescent childbearing. Even less is known about these issues in rural populations. How adolescent mothers compare with later mothers in terms of psychological sta- tus, social integration, occupational stress and satisfaction, home stress and satis- faction, and parenting satisfaction and efficacy is much less clear. This study was designed to explore how the tim- ing of first childbirth affects these do- mains of psychosocial functioning for a °am Community Health 2001;24(2):73—84 2001 Aspen Publishers, Inc. 73 P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 74 FAMILY &C OMMUNITY HEALTH /JULY 2001 sample of rural women who were on- Other research suggests that adoles- going participants in a 14-year longitu- cent mothers are more likely to be wel- dinal study of adolescence and young fare recipients, and report being less adulthood. optimistic and less hopeful about the While educational and occupational future than are their nonparenting ado- deficits for adolescent mothers when lescent peers, and may also have low- compared to later mothers are not the fo- ered life expectations brought about by cus of this report, the existence of these early parenthood.11 Additional studies in- deficits serves to illustrate some possible dicate that when controlling for race, age, and well documented negative outcomes and urban/rural status, substantial dif- of adolescent childbearing. Low educa- ferences between teen and older moth- tional attainment of adolescent mothers ers in nearly all indicators of socioe- 3—9 has been repeatedly noted. Specifi- conomic status (SES) in later life are cally, Klepinger and colleagues 10 indi- found, with teen childbearing related to cate that early childbearing reduced the long-term SES disadvantages for moth- educational attainment of young White, ers and their children.2 Many programs Black, and Hispanic women by 1—3 have been developed, in fact, to address 9 years. Wertheimer and Moore point out such needs, to improve life options out- that reduced educational attainment may comes, and prevent subsequent sexual occur because younger parents are less activity/pregnancy.13 able or motivated to continue schooling It is thus clear that educational and or because the burdens of childbearing occupational differences between adoles- and childrearing make pursuing further cent mothers and those who delay child- education too difficult. bearing are well established, both in the Because education appears to be a key recent past, and presently. However, dif- link between early childbearing and later ferences in psychosocial domains are less life events,lower educational attainment clear. A reasonable hypothesis, given the is a serious handicap for adolescent moth- wide range of evidence illustrating nega- ers, most clearly in the development of tive consequences of teen motherhood, their careers. Roosa8 found that delayed would be that early childbearers would childbearers were more likely to be work- suffer similar deficits in psychosocial do- ing outside the home prior to and after mains. Yet, while a few studies have childbirth, and had higher levels of edu- looked at psychosocial adjustment in 13—16 cation and higher paying and more pres- pregnant and parenting adolescents, tigious jobs than did younger mothers. existing research has rarely been longi- Teenage parents’ incomes also tend to be tudinal so this hypothesis has not been lower than those earned by other fam- well tested. The study reported here ex- ilies largely because of these educational amines adolescent mothers as they transi- deficits and the subsequent inability to ob- tion to and navigate through young adult- tain decent jobs, as well as the fact that hood in order to determine if deficits adolescent mothers are also more likely in psychosocial functioning are present, 3 to be single parents. emerge and/or continue. This follow-up P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 Psychosocial Status Based on Age of First Childbirth 75 is vital in order to understand the nature through their mid-twenties approximately and consequences of timing of first preg- 12 years later (n D 177). The commu- nancy. Understanding problems such as nity in which the subjects initially resided poor individual psychological adjustment was a Northern Appalachian, rural dis- in pregnant teens, as found by Thomas advantaged community, relying primar- et al.,7 is limited by a lack of follow-up ily on extracting and related industries, to determine if poor adjustment contin- e.g., mining, lumbering. At the beginning ues into young adulthood, or if it existed of the study the area was experiencing prior to the teen pregnancy. a high unemployment rate with average To investigate the long-term psychoso- household income, according to census cial consequences of the timing of first data, of $14,500, and an unemployment childbirth, five domains were examined in rate above 12%. Many businesses also this study: closed as a result of the economic turn- 1. individual psychological status; down of the 1980s. 2. social integration and quality of key At the beginning of the RAD study the social relationships; entire junior high school student popu- 3. occupational stress and satisfaction; lation was surveyed, with parental and 4. home stress and satisfaction; and administrative permission and approval, 5. parenting satisfaction and efficacy. on a wide range of developmental and Data from a longitudinal study of ado- health variables. Follow-up data collec- lescence, and continuing through young tions included extensive subject tracking, adulthood, were used. surveys, and interviews to obtain maxi- mum participation, over 76% for female subjects. METHODS The sample for this particular study, Sample selected from the larger EROS sample, was comprised of the 98 women who had Data for this research are drawn from given birth to at least one child by the time two studies. The first, the Rural Ado- of their interview for the follow-up study. lescent Development Study (RAD), was To compare women based on their age at the birth of their first child, three groups a 5-year prospective longitudinal study of the antecedents of rural adolescent were created. The first group (teen, n D health and development starting in 1985. 26) were mothers who had their first child The second study was a young adult at or before the age of 18. The second follow-up of participants from the RAD group (mid, n D 49) were mothers who Project, begun in 1997. The follow-up, had their first child between the ages of the Evaluation of Rural Outcomes of Sex- 19 and 22, while the final group (later, uality (EROS), by adding an additional n D 23) delayed childbearing until the age wave of data collection in young adult- of 23 or later. These cut-offs were chosen hood (1997), made it possible to examine to try to capture different developmental a sample of rural females longitudinally periods. For example, the teenage years from junior high school and continuing up to age 18 are, for most adolescents, P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 76 FAMILY &C OMMUNITY HEALTH /JULY 2001 the high school years. During this period birth at 13, one at 14, two at 15, six the majority of adolescents are involved at 16, seven at 17, nine at 18, eleven in school, most are still living at home, at 19, sixteen at 20, seventeen at 21, and those who work do so part-time. It five at 22, eight at 23, eleven at 24, and may be that childbearing at this time is sothree at 25. Of the 61 women who were non-normative as to have serious, long- currently working for pay, 15 were in the term consequences. The years between teen group, 31 in the mid group, and 19 and 22, for the majority of adoles- 15 in the later group. Employed moth- cents, capture either the initial move intoers worked an average of 37 hours/week. full-time work or a transition to postsec- The average household income for the ondary education. By age 22, childbear- entire sample ranged between $20,000— ing is less likely to interfere with school$24,999/year (Table 1). ing and/or vocational advancement. After that, childbearing is more likely to Procedure be normative, planned and, potentially, less disruptive. The study reported here was part of a The average age of the mothers in this larger longitudinal study begun in 1985, sample was 24.87 years, with the ma- which examined developmental issues for jority married at the time of the EROS a sample of rural youth during adoles- data collection. Nearly half of the moth- cence and young adulthood. Three co- ers had only one child. One mother gave horts of students from one school district Table 1. Demographic characteristics of teen, mid, and later mothers Entire sample Teen Mid Later (n D 98) (n D 26) (n D 49) (n D 23) Age 24.9 24.8 24.7 25.3 % married 66% 69% 59% 83% Number of children 1 child 49% 23% 41% 96% 2 children 23% 50% 57% 4% 3 children 8% 27% 2% 1 Avg. education completed 2 3 2 4 % currently employed 62% 58% 63% 65% Avg. # hours working/wk 36.7 36 36.4 37.7 Avg. job prestige 38.18 30.72 38.79 44.39 Avg. household income $20,000— $15,000— $20,000— $25,000— 24,999 19,999 24,999 29,000 1 22 D technical school; 3 D high school grad; 4 D some college. Higher scores indicate higher job prestige; i.e., NORC code of 36.08 D Beautician. P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 Psychosocial Status Based on Age of First Childbirth 77 were followed for 12 years, beginning Self-esteem when they were in junior high school. The 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem They were surveyed annually throughout 18 Inventory assessed self-esteem, and their school years, then periodic surveys was coded such that a high score re- and interviews occurred in the post-high flects high self-esteem. This scale has school years, for a total of eight waves been significantly correlated with other of data. All participants were Caucasian, scales assessing mood and disposition, representing the population of this north- suggesting it has adequate construct valid- ern Appalachian community. ity. Cronbach’s alpha was .86 for grade Women from the original RAD data nine females and .91 for the young adult set were tracked, then initially contacted women. by letter, and subsequently by phone to schedule a phone interview. When Self-image Questionnaire for Young potential subjects were contacted, less Adults (SIQYA) than 5 percent refused to participate. Three subscales, emotional tone These women have been consistently (11 items measuring negative effect), responsive when contacted, and made great efforts to return their surveys in peer relationships (10 items measuring peer relationships in adolescence), and a timely fashion. While self-report data family relationships (17 items measuring may reflect some subject bias, interview data were able to further validate survey family relationships in adolescence), from the Self-image Questionnaire for Young responses. Adults (SIQYA) 19were used to assess psy- Following the completion of the one to two hour phone interviews the women chosocial functioning. Cronbach’s alphas for the adolescent study were .75 (emo- were then sent a survey, which provided tional tone); .75 (peer relationships); and an opportunity for more sensitive infor- mation to be collected. The survey took .83 (family relationships). approximately one hour to complete. Activity involvement Participants were paid $100 on the com- pletion of these two procedures. Data Questions regarding the respondents’ for this study reflected self-report survey level of involvement in both religious and data. secular organizations and activities were asked in the interview. Participants were Measures asked, for example, whether they be- longed to a church and how often they Demographic characteristics attended, as well as the number, if any, The demographic questionnaire gath- of nonreligious teams, clubs, or organiza- tions to which they belonged. ered background data on the respondents and their families (e.g., parents’ marital status, educational attainment, employ- Conflict ment, and occupational prestige; family Relationship conflict was assessed with size and structure). an 11-item measure developed for the P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 78 FAMILY &C OMMUNITY H EALTH /JULY2001 RYATS study. The measure factors into three subscales assessing verbal conflict Loneliness was assessed using (e.g., “I yell”), positive conflict/reasoningthe UCLA Loneliness Scale 22 (e.g., “We talk things over calmly”), and which was created to reflect the discrepancy between desired and physical conflict (e.g., “My partner slaps or hits me”). In the present study, Cron- achieved levels of social contact. bach’s alpha was .74 for verbal conflict, .81 for reasoning/positive conflict, and .64 for physical conflict. Managing disagreements The eight-item Managing Disagree- ments Scale was taken directly from Depressive symptoms 23 The six-item Depression Inventory 20 Kurdek’s 1994 Ineffective Arguing In- ventory, which was developed to as- was used to assess depressive symptoms over the past year. Cronbach’s alpha for sess how couples handle conflicts. The Cronbach’s alpha for the present study this study was .76. was .88. Home stress and satisfaction Occupational satisfaction The Home Stress and Satisfaction and stress Indexes21 were adapted to examine cur- Current occupational satisfaction and rent home life and related characteris- perceived stress were assessed using the tics. The adapted instrument asks respon- Mansfield et al. 21 measure of domain- dents to rate both their current levels of specific stress and satisfaction. Respon- satisfaction (8 items) and stress (8 items) dents were asked to rate their current lev- related to specific aspects of their daily els of satisfaction and stress related to 16 lives including money, household respon- facets of their jobs on two subscales which sibilities, and balancing home and job. measure the interpersonal/affective and Cronbach’s alphas for this study were .77 structural aspects of one’s job. Cron- and .78 for home satisfaction and home bach’s alphas were .84 (interpersonal sat- stress, respectively. isfaction), .70 (structural satisfaction), .85 (interpersonal stress), and .70 (structural Loneliness stress) for the present study. Loneliness was assessed using the UCLA Loneliness Scale 22 which was Parental efficacy created to reflect the discrepancy be- Parental locus of control was measured tween desired and achieved levels of with the Parental Efficacy Subscale of the social contact. The original 20-item Parental Locus of Control Measure,24 as- scale was adapted to a 9-item mea- sessing the respondents’ feelings about sure with a 4-point response scale being a competent and effective parent. (1 D Never to 4 D Often). Cronbach’s al- Cronbach’s alpha for the present study pha for the present study was .73. was .67. P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 Psychosocial Status Based on Age of First Childbirth 79 Parenting satisfaction to later mothers. Ordinary Least Squares Satisfaction with the parent-child re- Regression was used to enter the dummy codes as initial predictors of psychosocial lationship was assessed with the 4-item Relationship Satisfaction Scale, 25 mea- outcomes. When either dummy variable suring respondents’ feelings of general was found to be a significant predictor, appropriate covariates such as prior psy- parenting satisfaction. The alpha coeffi- cient for the present study was .72. chological characteristics and number of children were entered into the equation. Relationship control Relationship control (i.e., how much Individual psychological status control one partner has 26er the other) In the first domain, individual psycho- was assessed with Stets’ 10-item mea- sure. Respondents were also asked to in- logical status, only one statistically signif- icant difference emerged: mothers in the dicate how much their partner controlled mid group were more likely than women them (his control). Items were adapted to indicate partner’s control (e.g., “I make in the later group to feel alone (ß D¡ .24, him do what I want” was changed to “He p <: 05). This difference remained even when number of children was included in makes me do what he wants”). Cron- bach’s alpha for this study was .84 and the equation. However, when emotional .88 for “her control” and “his control,” tone and peer relationships in the 9th grade were included in the equation, mid respectively. women were no more likely to feel alone Relationship questionnaire than later mothers (ß D¡ .07, p <: 58). Relationship status (whether the mother Braiker and Kelly’s Relationship Questionnaire 27 was used to assess the was in a romantic relationship or not) and previous family relationships were also quality of romantic relationships. For this not predictors of loneliness. study, 16 items were adapted from two of the subscales (love, conflict-negativity); Regression analyses on other aspects of psychological status revealed no sta- Cronbach’s alphas for this study were tistically significant differences between .90 and .81 for the love and conflict subscales, respectively. the groups. Specifically, teen mothers were no more likely to be depressed or lonely, or to have low self-esteem than later mothers, although a statistical trend RESULTS emerged for emotional tone, that is, teen mothers had lower emotional tone than Analyses later mothers (ß D¡ 40, p <: 06). Dummy codes were created in order This trend remained even when num- to compare the psychosocial outcomes of ber of children were included in the each group in regression equations, that equation. However, once emotional tone is, dummy codes were created such that prior to childbirth was included in the re- teen and mid mothers were compared gression equation, this trend disappeared P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 80 FAMILY &C OMMUNITY HEALTH /JULY 2001 (ß D¡ .13, p <: 50). (For all but two of may reflect activities related to their chil- the mothers, emotional tone in the 9th dren, who are generally older than chil- grade was used as a covariate. However, dren of later mothers. The groups did not two teen women had their babies before differ in terms of the number of extracur- the 9th grade, and for these two women ricular groups in which they participated. their emotional tone from the prior wave of data was used.) Home stress and satisfaction Regression analyses showed no group differences in either home stress or Social relationships satisfaction. In the second domain, quality of key Job stress and satisfaction social relationships, only one statisti- cally significant difference emerged: teen There were also no group differ- mothers were less likely to feel that ences in job stress, but results did show they had someone to confide in when that teen mothers were less satisfied they were having problems than did with both the interpersonal/affective and later mothers (ß D¡ .63, p <: 01). structural aspects of their jobs than were This difference remained significant re- later mothers (ß D¡ .92, p <: 05; ß D gardless of the number of people they ¡1.22, p <: 01 for interpersonal and felt they could go to for help, previ- structural aspects, respectively). The dif- ous peer relationships (in 9th grade) ference remained significant even when (ß D¡ .62, p <: 02), number of children job prestige (ß D¡ .90, p <: 05; ß D (ß D¡ .65, p < .03), and previous psy- ¡.96, p <: 05 for interpersonal and chological characteristics (emotional tone structural, respectively) and job environ- in 9th grade) (ß D¡ .55, p <: 05). Teen ment (ß D¡ 1.18, p <: 01; ß D¡ 1.13, and mid mothers were no different from p <: 01 for interpersonal and affective, later mothers in their perceptions of respectively) were included in the equa- their romantic relationships (relationship tions. The difference in interpersonal as- love and conflict), how they managed pects was eliminated when number of disagreements in their romantic relation- children was added into the equation (ß D ships, how much control they and their .79, p <: 12) but number of children partners exerted in their relationships or was not itself a significant predictor of job how conflict was dealt with in their re- satisfaction. lationship. These groups were also simi- Parenting satisfaction and efficacy lar in the satisfaction they felt about the social support they received. In terms In the fifth domain, parenting satisfac- of social integration, teen mothers did tion and efficacy, the initial picture that not attend church more often than the emerged was that teen mothers were less other two groups, but were more likely satisfied with being parents and felt less to participate in other church activities efficacious than later mothers (ß D¡ .21, (other than worship services) than were p <: 05; ß D¡ .33, p <: 05, for satisfac- later mothers (ß D 1.04, p <: 02). This tion and efficacy, respectively). There P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 Psychosocial Status Based on Age of First Childbirth 81 were no differences between mid and teenage childbearing are complex and later mothers. However, the difference reflect not only the timing of childbirth between teen and later mothers disap- but also the characteristics of mothers peared when the number of children was prior to their pregnancies. In other words, included in the regression equation (ß D teenage childbearing does not necessar- ¡.13, p <: 29; ß D¡ .23, p <: 20, for ily incur long-term negative psychosocial satisfaction and efficacy, respectively). outcomes for all young women. The psy- Teen mothers, on average, have two chil- chosocial status of young mothers from dren while later mothers have only one. the rural community in this study, in fact, Overall, results comparing young adult appears not much different from that of psychosocial status of women, based on later childbearers, at least through their the age of their first childbirth, present an early to mid-twenties. unexpectedly positive picture for adoles- More specifically, these results support cent mothers. Few current psychosocial the argument that, in their early young differences exist between those women adulthood, women who gave birth as who gave birth to their first child in ado- teenagers are not different in terms of lescence and women from the study who psychological health than women who gave birth in young adulthood (after 23). delay childbearing. Where differences do Such differences that do exist appear exist, such as greater loneliness for those to reflect status prior to their pregnancy who were adolescent mothers, psycho- rather than as a result of this timing. logical status prior to pregnancy explains the deficits. This finding is important as it suggests that it is not teen mother- DISCUSSION hood itself which necessarily has negative psychological consequences for women, A great deal has been written about the but rather individual characteristics, in educational,3 vocational,3;8 and finan- place before first childbirth, which affect 11 cial outcomes of teen pregnancy, usu- women’s later psychological well-being. ally comparing early versus later moth- Teen motherhood also does not appear ers. Such research usually shows a bleak to exacerbate or ameliorate these prior differences, at least through the early to picture for the young women. How- ever, very little is known about the long- mid-twenties. Thus, it appears not to be term psychosocial outcomes of adoles- the status of being a teen mother but rather personal characteristics and situa- cent childbearing. The results presented here suggest that the consequences of tions, in place prior to childbirth, which are related to later poorer psychological health. However, very little is known It would not be unreasonable, how- about the long-term psychosocial ever, still to expect adolescent child- bearing to have negative long-term outcomes of adolescent childbearing. consequences above and beyond previ- ously existing differences, given research P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, InAS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 82 FAMILY &C OMMUNITY HEALTH /JULY 2001 on the timing of the transition from ado- represent approximately one-quarter of lescence to adult roles and its implica- American adolescents, they have usually tions for adult role functioning and suc- been neglected in research on teenage cess. Typically, there is a culturally sharedand young adult health and well being. 31 expectation concerning the appropriate Further, there are few studies of sexu- timing and sequence of developmental ality and pregnancy among rural youth events and role transitions.;29Role tran- as compared to those on urban or sub- sitions, such as becoming a mother, that urban youth. While teen pregnancy is are “off-time” may have negative conse- not confined to urban areas (20% of quences for young girls because they are teen births occur among rural teens 32) seen by themselves and others as being the antecedents and consequences of socially deviant, and because opportuni- rural adolescent pregnancy are far less ties and services are likely to be organized studied and understood. There may be around society’s normative timetable and unique perspectives on, and acceptance may be less accessible to those who devi- of, early childbearing in rural commu- ate in timing or sequence. Early role entry nities that affect the relationship be- may place the individual at particular risk tween timing of first childbirth and psy- in that normal developmental processes chosocial outcomes. This could account are truncated and the young person may for the lack of psychosocial differences be immature and ill-prepared to meet the found here. It is clearly an area de- challenges of the new role.30 In line with serving of further research and closer this perspective, research indicates that study. early transitions to work and marriage The lack of differences between adoles- can have negative impacts on various cent mothers and later mothers extends aspects of well-being, even when other to the realm of personal relationships. background factors are controlled.29Sim- The quality of romantic relationships, in- ilarly, the timing of first childbirth may cluding relationship love and conflict, was affect the timing of other adult role tran- not different for the three groups of moth- sitions as well as an individual’s compe- ers, nor was their satisfaction with the tence in handling them. social support in their lives. The qual- This work suggests that even if a young ity of home life, as measured by both girl’s entry into motherhood is “off-time” stress and satisfaction, was also not dif- or “early,” she is not likely to suffer ferent, adding to a picture of a positive certain negative consequences such as family situation. The one difference was lower self-esteem, depression, or a va- parenting satisfaction and efficacy, with riety of other psychosocial problems. If teen mothers’ reporting feeling less sat- early childbirth is normative in a com- isfied and efficacious, although this dis- munity, that fact may in part explain appeared when number of children was an absence of differences between ado- included in the analyses. Mothers who lescent and later mothers. There is lim- started having children earlier had on av- ited research on rural youth in general. erage one more child. It certainly makes More specifically; although rural youth sense that women with more children P1: GJI FCH/Aspen Publisher, Inc.AS084-07 May 17, 2001 10:51 Char Count= 0 Psychosocial Status Based on Age of First Childbirth 83 have more demands placed on their time cial status is not also relevant for present and they may find juggling the needs adolescent mothers. These most impor- of multiple children more difficult. These tant outcome variables do not appear to women may feel less capable and satisfied reflect social norms regarding adolescent with their ability to meet these multiple pregnancy at a point in time but instead expectations and challenges, accounting reflect individual psychosocial status vari- for the differences in quality of parenting ables. These findings make a contribution satisfaction and efficacy. to our understanding of long-term conse- Interestingly, at the workplace there quences of timing of first childbirth for a were no differences found in job stress, sample of rural, disadvantaged white fe- even though younger mothers were more males. It is important, however, to note likely to have lower prestige jobs, reflect- that the sample size, 98 young women, ing their lower educational attainment. limits the statistical power of the find- However, the teen mothers were less sat- ings as well as generalizability of these isfied with interpersonal and affective di- results. Because these findings are coun- mensions of their employment, a differ- terintuitive to many expected outcomes, ence that disappeared when 9th grade it is clear that further work is needed emotional tone was included in the anal- to track the psychosocial consequences yses. This suggests again that it is not the of the timing of first childbirth in larger quality of their jobs which leads to dissat- samples and past early adulthood to see isfaction, but rather their previous emo- whether the absence of differences in psy- tional characteristics which explain their chosocial outcomes is replicated. The in- lower satisfaction. vestigators hope to follow this sample In conclusion, the results of this longi- and assess these outcomes again to fur- tudinal study suggests that the psychoso- ther clarify patterns over time. It would cial status differences found between teen be important, too, to determine whether and young adult mothers appear to be the these findings are similar for urban or result of earlier psychological and social suburban samples as well. However, this qualities, factors that preceded the preg- study can begin to suggest to health care nancy. 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