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Human Biology 60, Week 4

by: witch_dancer

Human Biology 60, Week 4 60

Marketplace > Long Beach City College > Human Biology > 60 > Human Biology 60 Week 4

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Class notes for Human Bio, 9.27-10.4
Human Bio 60
Downey, John
Class Notes
Biology, HumanBiology, LongBeachCityCollege, LBCC, Science, Hematology, classnotes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by witch_dancer on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 60 at Long Beach City College taught by Downey, John in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Bio 60 in Human Biology at Long Beach City College.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Hematology Human Biology, 60 Downey, John LBCC Chapter Vocabulary Chapter Vocabulary ABO System Human classification system based on RBC antigens and their corresponding antibodies. Agglutinate Antibodies causing antigens to clump or stick together. Agranular Leukocyte A class of white blood cell that does not exhibit granules when strained. Albumin One of several proteins found in the plasma of the blood; helps thicken the blood. Antibody Substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance (antigen) that has entered the body. Antigen Substance, that when introduced to the body, causes formation of antibodies against it. Basonphil White blood cell that stains readily with basic dyes. Buffy Coat Thin layer of white blood cells and platelets located between red blood cells and plasma in centrifuged sample of blood. HbCO2 Compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin. Cardiovascular System The system that transports cells through the body by way of blood vessels. Eosinophil White blood cell that is readily stained by eosin. Erythrocyte Red Blood Cell Factor VIII One of the blood clotting factors Fibrin Insoluble protein in clotted blood. Fibrinogen Soluble blood protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin during clotting. Formed Element Cellular fraction of the blood. Globulin A type of plasma protein that includes antibodies. Granular Leukocyte White blood cells with granules visible in the cytoplasm when stained. Hematology The study of blood. Hemaglobin Iron containing protein red blood cells. Heparin Naturally occurring substance that inhibits formation of a blood clot; has been used as a drug to clot blood. Histamine Chemical released by basophils and mast cells in allergic and inflammatory reactions; results in blood vessel vasodilation and bronchoconstriction. Immune System The body’s defense system against disease. Leukocyte White blood cells Lymphatic System System that plays a critical role in the functioning of the immune system, moves fluids and large molecules from the tissue spaces and fat-related nutrients from the digestive system to the blood. Lymphocyte One type of white blood cell. Lymphoid Tissue Tissue that is responsible for manufacturing lymphocytes and monocytes; found mostly in the lymph nodes, thymus and spleen. Macrophage Phagocytic cells in the immune system. Mast Cell Immune system cell that secretes histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. Monocyte The largest type of white blood cell; a type of agranulocyte; often involved in phagocytosis of abnormal cells or particles. Myeloid Tissue Relating to bone marrow. Neutrophil White blood cell that stains readily with neutral dyes. HbO2 Hemoglobin combined with oxygen. Phagocyte White blood cell that engulfs microbes and digests them. Plasma The liquid part of the blood. Plasma Cell Cell that secretes copious amounts of antibody in the blood; also called the effector cell. Plasma Protein Any several proteins normally found in the plasma; includes albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. Platelet A thrombocyte. Platelet Plug A temporary accumulation of platelets at the site of injury; it precedes the formation of a blood clot. Prothrombin Protein present in normal blood that is required for clotting. Prothrombin Activator Combination of clotting factors and circulating plasma proteins that initiates conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the clotting mechanism. Red Blood Cell (RBC) An erythrocyte. Rh System Hormone produced by the hypothalamus gland that causes the anterior pituitary gland to release its hormones. Serum Blood plasma minus its clotting factors; still contains antibodies. Thrombin Protein important in blood clotting. Thrombocyte Type of blood cell that plays a role in blood clotting; also called platelet. White Blood Cell (WBC) A leukocyte. Hematology: The study of blood - 3 functions of blood: 1. Transportation: the movement of gases, waste, hormones, nutrients, cells, and food through the bloodstream. 2. Homeostasis: Refers to PH buffers, temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance. 3. Protection: Against toxins and foreign organisms.  Blood varies on body composition; adipose tissue has many effects on the blood.  Fat percentage and blood percentage is based on body weight. o Men have 4-6 liters of blood o Women are just shy of a gallon of blood  PH of blood must be kept in a very narrow range o 7.35 to 7.45 o If the blood pH level is decreased, creates acidosis.  We also have specific gravity o 1.040 o Based on the amount of water o Looking at the weight of substance compared to an equal volume of water  “Viscosity” is referring to a substance’s thickness  In our brain, blood is 85% water versus the 80% water in the rest of our body. Blood Components: i. Plasma portion: a. 55%-60% of the blood b. Water is main component c. Comes from the digestive tract d. Yellowish color e. The water acts as a solvent in our blood f. Adsorbs heat g. Helps dilute i. Proteins in the plasma: 1. 14% produced in liver 2. Helps give viscosity 3. There are 3 proteins a. Albumins: i. 55% of protein ii. Fluid balance b. Fibrinogens i. 7% of protein ii. Helps with clotting 1. *Serum: refers to plasma without fibrinogens* c. Globulins i. 38% of protein ii. Helps form antibodies h. Ions, sugars and waste products also make up plasma ii. Cellular Portion/Formed Elements: a. 40%-45% of the blood b. Red blood cells: i. Erythrocytes ii. Most numerous iii. When erythrocytes mature, they lose their nucleus iv. Erythropoeisis: refers to the red bone marrow’s ability to form RBCs. 1. 1.5 trillion erythrocytes in females 2. 2 trillion in males v. Lives for 125 days vi. Have hemoglobin 1. Molecule able to attach 02 for transportation of our cells 2. Each hemoglobin can attach 4 molecules 3. At each location, iron is requires for 02 to attach 4. A pigmented molecule: a. Not attached – turns blue b. Attached – turns red c. Too attached – turns dusty red 5. Helps in removing CO2 c. Leukocytes i. White blood cells ii. Not as numerous iii. Guards against microbes, toxins iv. Work outside the circulatory system v. Some found in the lymphatic system, in the lymphoid tissue 1. Granulocytes: a. Will have granuoles in their cytoplasm b. Nucleus is not perfectly round i. Neutrophils 1. 60-70% of all leukocytes 2. Phagocytic; engulf/surround other cells and consume/break them down 3. The first cells involved with inflammation 4. Very vulnerable cells ii. Eosiniphils 1. 1-4% of leukocytes 2. Weakly phagocytic 3. Will break down blood clots 4. Break down foreign proteins iii. Basophils 1. 0-1% of leukocytes 2. Not phagocytic 3. Releases chemicals: a. Histamine is the primary chemical 4. Involved in inflammation and allergic responses 2. Agranulocytes: a. Nucleus not globed i. Monocytes 1. 2-6% 2. Will leave blood stream to where there is injured tissue or infection 3. Macrophages a. Consumes debris and foreign organisms 4. Role in inflammation ii. Lymphocytes 1. 20-30% 2. Mostly found in lymphoid tissue 3. Role in the immune response, following inflammation 4. Creates antibodies d. Margination: i. Where the leukocytes will line up on the blood vessel wall, typically at injury or infection e. Diapedesis: i. Where they squeeze through the surrounding wall A. In that process, suppuration takes place – the formation of pus. iii. Thrombocytes: a. Colorless, cytoplasmic position of larger cells b. Don’t have a nucleus c. 8-10 day life expectancy d. Important role in clotting blood Steps of clotting:  At site of injury, platelets or thrombocytes will clump (aggregation) at site and produces platelets  Platelet factor will combine with prothrombin (present in the blood) and calcium (also present in blood) to produce thrombin.  Thrombin will combine with Fibrinogen to produce fibrin o Fibrin is a mess/net like substance that will catch erythrocytes and leukocytes to create clotting Thrombus: refers to a fixed or stationed clot with the circulatory system Embolis: A moving clot within the circulatory system Hematocrit: in relationship to whole blood volume Pathologies Anemia Folate Hemoglobi Hematocri Iron RBC Vitamin Content n t size B12 Aplastic Normal Low to Low to High Normal Normal normal normal to slightly high Pernicious Normal Low Low High High Low Hemorrhagi Low to Normal to Normal Slightly Normal c: Normal Normal low low Acute: Normal Low Low Low Low to Normal Chronic: Normal Folate Defic. Low Low Low High High Normal Iron Normal Low Low Low Low Normal Sickle Cell Normal Low Low Normal Normal Normal to high to high Anemia: where less O2 is reaching the tissues  5 types of anemia: o Nutritional Anemia: a deficiency of iron in the diet o Hemorrhagic:  A loss of substantial quantity of red blood cells.  Treated with transfusions of whole blood or red blood cells. o Pernicious:  Inadequate B12 vitamin in the body or failure of the stomach lining to produce the intrinsic factor.  Develop nervous system issues, numbness, tingling, or burning in the feet and hands.  Mental impairment, delusions, irritability, and depression  Treated with injects of B12. o Sickle Cell:  A production of abnormally shaped hemoglobin, which doesn’t carry O2 very well.  A genetic disease  Mostly will not show symptoms, but occasionally will have a more serious case due to high-exertion or stress and the person will fall ill. o Aplastic:  Inadequate production of erythrocytes due to destruction or inhibition of the red bone marrow.  These types of cases are very serious, 70% death rate 3-4 months after diagnosis.  Can be due to:  Toxins  Medication  Radiation White Blood Cell Disorders:  Two major groups of disease conditions of white blood cell related, or neoplasms.  Lymphoid neoplasms: from lymphoid precursor cells that normally produce B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes or their descendant type cells.  Myeloid neoplasms: a result of malignant transformation of myeloid precursor cells that normally produce granulocytic leukocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes and platelets.  B Lymphocyte: Antibody production  T Lymphocyte: Cellular immune response Multiple Myeloma  Cancer of mature antibody secreting plasma cells.  Most common and most deadly in people older than 65.  Results in:  Impairment of bone marrow function  Production of defective antibodies  Recurrent infections  Anemia  Painful destruction and fracture of bones in skull, vertebrae, and throughout the skeletal system.  Chemotherapy, marrow and stem cell transplantation and certain drug and antibody treatments are used.  May lengthen life and relieve symptoms but does not cure disease. Leukemia  Used to describe a number of blood cancers affection the leukocytes.  Elevated WBC occurs, or leukocytosis  Identified as acute or chronic depending on how quickly symptoms appear after disease begins.  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Onset is normally 65, anything before 30 is rare Unexpected diagnosis in routine check-ups is common with B lymphocytic leukocytosis Effects men more than women Anemia, fatigue, painless enlarged lymph nodes  Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia 3-7 years old 80% of children with leukemia have this type of disease Fever, leukocytosis, bone pain, and increases in infections, lymph node, spleen and liver enlargement is common Not as curable in adults, more curable in children Chemotherapy, irradiation, and bone marrow or stem cell transplantation is how it is treated  Chronic myeloid leukemia 20% of all leukemia cases 25-60 years of age is most common time Cancerous transformation of granulocytic precursor cells in bone marrow Fatigue, weight loss and weakness Extreme spleen enlargement and marked granulocytic leukocytosis Gleevec or bone marrow transplant curative in more than 70% of cases  Acute Myeloid Leukemia 80% of adult cases, 20% of children cases Leukocytosis, fatigue, bone and joint pain, spongy bleeding gums, anemia, recurrent infections 50% of children and 30% of adults have long term survival Bone marrow and stem cell transplantation has increased cure rates Infections Mononucleosis  Non-cancerous  15-25 years old is when it typically occurs  Caused by virus in saliva of infected persons  Fever, severe fatigue, sore throat, rash and enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen  Self-limited and resolves in 4-6 weeks without complications Blood Type Antigens Antibodies A B B B A A AB A,B None O none A,B Erythroblastosis Fetalis: An RH negative mother and RH positive father. Upon delivery of first RH positive child, the blood stream of mother and baby mix, and the mother becomes sensitive to RH factor, and creates antibodies. o Any future RH positive child conceived will be attacked by the mother’s antibodies across the placentae.


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