Psych 380 Chapter 17 Notes
Psych 380 Chapter 17 Notes PSYCH 380
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keel on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 380 at University of South Carolina taught by Joe Ferraracci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Sports Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Sport and Exercise Psychology Chapter 17 Notes Wednesday, September 21, 2016 5:29 PM The essay will be on the personality chapter look at chapter 22 and some questions will be on personality Why Exercise for Psychological well being • The hectic pace of westernized technological society causes stress and increased demands; more people than ever are feeling their ill efforts • Across their lifetime 25% of people will have anxiety disorders and 20% depression • By the year 2020, depression will be second only to cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death and disability. • Anxiety disorder and depression cost the public $45 billiona year • Exercise + influences feelings of well-being and decreases anxiety and depression • Epidemiologydata show that physical activity is + associated with good mental health in the US and Canadian populations. Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Exercise • Anaerobic: short term or burst activities not involving the transportation of O2 (weightlifting baseball) • Aerobic: longer term activities that increase pulmonary and cardiovascular system activity (e.g., cycling, running) Reduction of Anxiety -Aerobic exercise in associated with lower state anxiety and higher tranquility scores. -Post-exercise reductions in state anxiety return to pre-exercise anxiety levels within 24 hours. • Acute effects of exercise - Exercise intensities between 30% and 70% of maximal heart rate appear to be associated with the greatest reduction in post exercise state anxiety - Moderate intensity exercise produced the greatest + effects in affective responses. - Even low-intensity exercise improved affect. - Exercise training is particularly effective for people who have elevated levels of anxiety, but will reduce anxiety even for people with low levels of anxiety - Exercise is associated with reductions in muscle tension - Role of stress hormones • Chronic effects of exercise Physical fitness is + associated with mental health and well-being - - Exercise is associated with the reduction of stress emotions such as….. - Anxiety and depression are common symptoms of failure to cope with mental stress, and exercise has been associated with a decreased level of mild to moderate depression and anxiety - Long-term exercise is usually associated with reductions in traits such as neuroticism and anxiety - Appropriate exercise results in reductions in various stress indicators, such as neuromuscular tension resting heart rate, and some stress hormones. - Current clinical opinion holds that exercise has beneficial emotional effects across ages and sexes - Physically healthy people who require psychotropic (mood-altering) medication may safely exercise under close medical supervision. Reduction of Depression • A moderate relationship exists between exercise and depression • This is a correlation, not a cause-effect relationship • The + effects are seen across age groups, health status, race, socioeconomic status, and sexes. • Both anaerobic and anaerobic exercise are associated with reductions in depression • Exercise produces larger antidepressant effects when the training program is at least 9 weeks long. • Reductions in depression after exercise do not depend on fitness levels. • Exercising three to five times per week produces significantreductions in depression com[pared to once-a-week exercise. Exercise and Mood Changes • Mood refers to a host of transient fluctuating affective states that can be + or - (e.g. feelings of elation or happiness or sadness) • Exercise is related to + changes in mood state. • Exercise improves positive mood regardless of the number of - and + affective state in a given day • Exercisers with choice of exercise mode scored lower on negative affect than exercisers having no choice • Perception of fitness may be responsiblefor part of the mood-enhancing effects of exercise (as opposed to the actual level of fitness itself). How exercise enhances Psychological well-being • Physiological explanation - Increases in cerebral blood flow - Changes in brain neurotransmitters (norepininhephrine, endorphins, serotonins) - Increase in maximum O2 consumption and delivery of O2 to cerebral tissue SportsPsych Page 1 - Increase in maximum O2 consumption and delivery of O2 to cerebral tissue - Reductions in muscle tension - Structural changes in the brain. • Psychological explanations - Enhanced feeling of control - Feeling of competency and self-efficacy - + social interactions Improved self-concept and self-esteem - - Opportunities for fun and enjoyment Exercise and Changes in Personality and Cognitive Functioning • Development of the self - Exercise is related to participants' self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy - Regular exercise is related to increased self-esteem - Esteem-enhancement effects of exercise are especially pronounced in people with low self-esteem. • Exercise programs conducted over long periods are associated with moderate gains in cognitive functioning • Acute exercise increased cognitive functioning in the form of working memory only for people in low working memory • Acute aerobic exercise increased executive cognitive functioning in planning and problem solving. Cardiovascular Fitness and Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults • Fitness training has beneficial effects on the cognitive functioning of older adults • These effects were largest for those tasks involving executive control ( planning scheduling, working memory, task coordination). • Fitness training combined with strength…. Exercise and Quality of Life • Quality of life: a person's behavioral functioning ability-being able to do everyday stuff and living long enough to do it • Physically active people report a better quality of life • College students participate in an endurance-conditioning program report a ….. • The positiveeffects of physical activity ion quality of life can be grouped into four categories a. Enhancing physical functioning b. Subjective well-being as indicated by personal enjoyment and mood alteration c. Experiencing peak moments d. Personal meaning SportsPsych Page 2
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