China in World War II 1937-1945
China in World War II 1937-1945 Hist 350
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 350 at University of Baltimore taught by Dr. Boram Yi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History of Modern China in History at University of Baltimore.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Ashley Jenkins September 26 China in WWII How was Mao’s strategy different from traditional communism? o His approach to recruiting peasants o They recruited from factories, o having people go on strikes If we want to have a communist revolution we need to focus on the majority, which are the peasants Distinction of Chinese communism Maoism- communisis revolution by the peasants communist leader until his death in 1976 very clear from the beginning for revolution that it was going to be very violent and bloody until we reach our goal to change china Follow through until 1949 until people’s republic of china By the time of the cultural revolution everyone had you have to memorize the red book. Collection of quotations from Mao, have to memorize it in school If you don’t remember it was very detrimental to you and your family Mao became supreme leader By 1935 nationalist parties have only 10k troops, chain kai shek forced to make a second united front Was kidnapped by his second in command World war II in Asia started in 1937 Japan declared war on China. Japanese and Chinese forces fought in Korea o Chinese lost o Japan had sole control over Korea Twain became Japanese colony Japan expanding its territory By 1910 japan had fully colonized Korea Defeated Russia in 1905 o Got rid of Russian influence, replaced it for Japanese influences Between 1914-1919 japan was on the winning idea. Sphere of influence in northern china Since 1910 japan had invested heavily in northern china Because china didn’t have a functioning government o Business men go to china bring their own troops o Believe Chinese government cannot protect them of their Japanese work force each country brought their own armies to protect them. 1928 the war lord who controlled Manchuria aligned himself with chaing kai-shck. o Nationalists were never in complete control of Manchuria o Japanese forces sent by government to protect the property Guarding a railroad o Japanese’s forces assonated the war lord. o Without order from the Japanese government, solders on their own decided. Enraged the emperor Entire cabinet had to resign, had to get orders. Had orders not to get involved in political struggles. Kidnaping of Chaing kai-shck came from this background o Not about him loosing territory and political influence o He could lose his life 1931 Japanese forces were protecting the rail road o Later on, investigation proved that someone had destroyed Japanese property o Used that as an excuse to declare war in northern china. o Later on it was discovered that it was japan who destroyed their own property for an excuse. o Japanese forces fought really well News came to Tokyo o Not asked to invade entire Northern China o Act of insubordination o Serious in military o Cabinet discusses and decides the fate of these soldiers and officers. Divided, it was wrong but we got their land and it’s already done. It’s even more humiliating to say sorry to the Chinese. o When they returned to japan these traitors were met with great enthusiasm by the people o Treated as a hero. Went against government to do this for japan. No united front from Chinese, forces ordered to retreat. Communists were in Yunan and couldn’t fight No backlash from league of nations. (UN of the time) League sent an investigation team, report was negative but it took a long time. o Had no real power. No enforcement measures o Made a public announcement to condemn Japanese behavior and asked them to return the land to china o No actual enforcement. o Japan just left the LoN [voluntary] Thought there was a double standard because America was allowed to have free reign. Installed Pu Yi, last actual emperor of china. o In 1925 he was forced from the palace, lived in a Japanese controlled city o His life was supported by Japanese money o Saved him and groomed him in 1920s. In 1931 after the invasion they installed him as puppet government in Manchukuo o “chief executive” o Defended himself saying he could use Japanese to establish Chinese power. o Clear he doesn’t have actual power. o Just a familiar face. After there was an established occupation they wanted a lot of Japanese to move there o Circulated a lot of propaganda Poor in japan moved to Korea and then to china. o Good interest rates, low taxes, incentives o Uses northern china as a source as natural resources Agricultural Coal o Became part of the Japanese economic system by the 1930s. 1933-1937 o Many Chinese frustrated because nationalists didn’t resist and let japan had free reign That’s when the war lord kidnaped Chaing kai-shck o Formed second united front Mao and kai-shck met o Not following specific ideology Nationalism Peoples livelihood Democracy o National defense counsel Equal representation Red army integrated with nationalist army o Guerilla warfare v. traditional warfare Red army got training and arms that they didn’t have before. Got the skills to use weapons but got physical weapons o Now they are fighting for not for Mao, not communists, but fighting for China. o Communist became legitimized. Can speak for the people. o And people who didn’t know about the movement, see them and saw them as a part of building new China. 1937 although japan had already occupied northern China, they declared all-out war to have control over the entire country. o Less competition from Europe and America, great depression, economic problems. o Great opportunity, Less of European resistance, good timing. o In the beginning they were doing very well, every battle they fought they were winning. By 1920 about 50% of national budget was going in to the Japanese military. Attacked Shanghai and moved north o Won every battle o Aggressively moving into china. o Nanjing was the next city. It was the capital of the Nationalist government o Japanese army completely desolated the cities. o Brutality, rape, death. Even of the foreigners were being brutalized without help from their governments. Some of the consultants provided sheltered Lots of records from Nanjing from foreigners, Did not attack them directly, could trigger a war. o Reference to the reading: westerners were shocked that Japanese were not following ‘rules of war’ Japanese had contested later the autunitic of death/rape count Couple things clear: When kai-shck left, he did not inform the people. Broke the dams to flood the area and block the Japanese’s soldiers. Civilians were left to fend for themselves. Japan has to use brutality because their numbers were so small. o Chinese were not unified and the land was vast and diverse, Fear was their only weapon. Had to occupy territory they conquered By 1939 there was a western embargo of Japanese goods. “Moral Embargo” Soviet Union and the United Stated started to help out in China o SU helped Nationalists and not Communists. o Mao has a different ideology then SU. o He was looking for something in return Real politician Thought that Nationalists were going to win. o If Japan continued to expand in China, they would have direct access to SU They had already defeated Russia years before. o Chaing kai-shck had better forces better funding and more weapons. o Also didn’t want to engage the US as they and just recognized SU legitimacy. After 1937 US deployed naval forces as a threat to Japan o If you do something we may get involved. o Japan didn’t want to get involved in a conflict with US. American Volunteer Air Force “Flying Tiger” o Went to China to train piolets. o The way for you to get into the fighting zone was to fly. Sea was blocked. Complication: US and Japan were important trade partners o Lots of imports and exports. o Over 60% of US foreign investment want to Japan o Didn’t really protect economic rights. Thought that Japan would listen if America if they enforced economic embargo Japan joined axis powers o 1941 started to move into south china sea area o Japan moved into Indochina. o America said if you continue to fight were going to stop selling you steel and oil. o Japanese delegation counter offer, we’ll leave Indochina if you sell us 1 mill of oil. o Didn’t say anything about China. o US did not accept this offer. In December of 1941, they attacked Pearl Harbor. Japan saw expansion into Asia was a domestic issue o Didn’t want America sticking their nose in o Thought the axis treaty would give them power, now they had allies. US also said that Japan could be compliant with American demands and return to international cooperation. o Japan could be bullied into compliance o Would not risk war with US. Suicide. Japan thought that US didn’t have any interest in China o Didn’t think they would follow through Chaing Kai-Shck became an important ally after attack on PH. o Location. o Sometimes involved in in talks with allied powers. Status. o They stored arms, and trained the people to help fight japan. Worked for the Allies. o Didn’t have any sort of foothold in Asia. o Chinese alliance was very beneficial. Only had islands. Within bombing range from china. o Important for allied victory over japan. o Set up bases and forces. Churchill and Wilson declared that Japan needed to return all of the territory they took. o If Japan lost, they would not have to do this. Started receiving money from America o Rampant corruption o Roosevelt knew money was being taken, didn’t want to shake relations. Yalta agreement in 1945 o Divided a lot of land. o Including outer Mongolia, Russia won Mongolia, US agreed that it was okay. o Reparations taken out of Mongolia created buffer zone with japan Security promised by the allies During the way you see problems with the second united front o Kept it okay for a while o Started having issues after japan was defeated. o China was liberated. Started civil war between the nationalist and communist forces.
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